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John Steffen and Mark Bourassa

retrieved from the hourly product of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al. 1996 ; Doelling 2017 ). A more detailed description of the atmospheric forcing variables is provided in Table 1 . All of these variables have different grid spacing and temporal resolution. Therefore, the forcing input variables were all interpolated to the ROMS parent grid using a cubic spline interpolation method. Furthermore, a time interpolation was applied to input data with coarser

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Raymond A. Richardson, Isaac Ginis, and Lewis M. Rothstein

1988 ). Regarding the local response, it has long been recognized that strong westerly wind forcing on or near the equator leads to the development of an eastward surface Yoshida jet ( Yoshida 1959 ). Less well understood has been the phenomenon, first observed by Hisard et al. (1970) , that this surface response is often accompanied by a significant subsurface current directed to the west. Other observations of this subsurface westward jet (SSWJ), centered at depths in the 150-m range, were also

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David Adamec and Russell L. Elsberry

observations at this site. Theatmospheric forcing is derived from the 3-hour observations of wind speed, cloud cover, air temperature,sea-surface temperature and dewpoint temperaturefor the years 1953-69. The forcing is calculated bythe bulk aerodynamic formulas listed in AppendixA. Though measured values of solar radiation havebeen available at Papa since 1959, this study usescalculated values of the solar flux for all 17 years.The use of calculated solar flux values degrades partof the model's predictive

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J. Carter Ohlmann, David A. Siegel, and Curtis D. Mobley

upper 10 cm of the ocean, normalized by the total incident irradiance, can decrease by 50% in the presence of clouds. Solar zenith angle can affect transmission through changes in the light field geometry. Dependence of the vertical decay of irradiance on sun angle has been illustrated for clear sky conditions using Monte Carlo simulations ( Kirk 1984 ; Gordon 1989 ). Solar zenith angle and wind forcing of the sea surface have been shown to effect in-water radiative transfer through modification of

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John B. Mickett, Yolande L. Serra, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew H. Alford

1. Introduction Weakly damped systems have the potential to become resonant when the forcing is closely tuned to the preferential or natural frequency response of the system. In the case of the ocean mixed layer, which has a dominant response to wind stress in the form of inertial motions with frequencies near the local Coriolis frequency f , resonance is likely to occur when the wind stress vector ( τ ) either rotates in phase with the mixed layer inertial motions or forces the mixed layer in

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Pascal Bourgault, David Straub, Kevin Duquette, Louis-Philippe Nadeau, and Bruno Tremblay

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice is in rapid decline and scientific consensus has that this trend will continue into the future. That simulations underestimate this decline ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Rosenblum and Eisenman 2016 ) suggests that physical processes absent or poorly represented in the current generation global climate models (GCMs) still play a significant role. Examples include melt ponds ( Perovich et al. 2011 ; Holland et al. 2012 ) and cloud phase (which can impact both sea ice

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Russell L. Elsberry and Norman T. Camp

206 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUMESOceanic Thermal Response to Strong Atmospheric Forcing I. Characteristics of Forcing Events RUSSELL L. ELSBERRYl AND NORMAN T. CAMP2'3Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Cal~ 93940(Manuscript received 10 March 1977, in final form 21 November 1977)ABSTRACT Long time series of meteorological data from Ocean Weather Ships P, V and N in the

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Theodore S. Durland and J. Thomas Farrar

summary we discuss some of the conditions proposed by Luther (1980) under which this might occur. The tenacity of the idea that such a physical process was demonstrated theoretically by WG is somewhat curious, however, because it is not in fact what the mathematics of WG predicted. In the analysis that led them to expect excess energy in frequency spectra near modal frequency minima, the resonant energy produced by a broadband forcing spectrum was the same order of magnitude everywhere along a

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A. E. Gargett and C. E. Grosch

wind/wave forcing. In addition to quite different magnitudes of , the two cases have strikingly different backscatter fields. The LSC case exhibits distinctive surface-origin clouds of high backscatter correlated with downward vertical velocities, clouds widely attributed to advection of air microbubbles produced by surface wave breaking in the downwelling limbs of Langmuir cells ( Zedel and Farmer 1991 ). In this shallow location, the LSC case also has distinctive bottom-origin backscatter clouds

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David A. Williams, Kevin J. Horsburgh, David M. Schultz, and Chris W. Hughes

whether external resonance could have occurred, first we calculated the speed of the convective system using two-dimensional cross correlation of radar-derived precipitation. Two-dimensional cross correlation has been previously used to estimate meteotsunami forcing velocity with satellite images of cloud tops ( Belušić and Mahović 2009 ) and radar reflectivity ( Wertman et al. 2014 ). Here, cross correlation was used on the radar-derived precipitation fields, which should have provided more

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