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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

surface water was typically advected 3 km farther per day than water at 30 m. The shear that occurs between the diurnal jet and the mixed layer (0.03 s −1 ; Sutherland et al. 2016 ; Bogdanoff 2017 ) is comparable to that found in estuarine flows (0.05 s −1 ; Stacey and Pond 1997 ), at the base of internal solitary waves (0.05 s −1 ; Moum et al. 2003 ), and in the sheared layer above the equatorial undercurrent (0.02 s −1 ; Smyth et al. 2013 ). Under weak forcing (wind < 2 m s −1 ), clear sky, and

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

source of convective heating for the global atmospheric circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). However, a high-resolution cloud-resolving model is often required to accurately capture the detailed features of the precipitation distribution ( Sato et al. 2009 ; Birch et al. 2015 ), and errors in global climate models in this region cascade into substantial simulation errors from pole to pole ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ). A greater understanding of the diurnal

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

rotational component. Moreover, from 80 to 10 km, the observed anomalous scaling of velocity increments observed in the ocean data presented here is consistent with three-dimensional stratified turbulence in other geophysical fluids ( Lohse and Xia 2010 ). Specifically, in situ measurements of stratified turbulence, for example, through marine clouds ( Siebert et al. 2010 ) and the atmospheric surface layer ( Chu et al. 1996 ) also show anomalous scaling and non-Gaussian distributions of velocity

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