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Li Zhai, Blair Greenan, Richard Thomson, and Scott Tinis

1. Introduction Satellite altimeter data reveal that the global mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of 3 mm yr −1 over the past several decades ( Church et al. 2013 ; Dieng et al. 2017 ; Chen et al. 2017 ). The future rate of global mean sea level rise is projected to exceed the average observed rate under all Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios ( IPCC 2013 ). Relative sea level rise across Canada and along the East Coast of the United States show

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Rui M. Ponte

1. Introduction Observations from the global array of tide gauges and more recently from satellite altimetry reveal a continuum of low-frequency sea level variability, from well-defined seasonal cycles and large interannual and decadal fluctuations to more subtle secular trends. Part of this variability is directly related to changes in the circulation and heat and freshwater contents of the oceans and can thus provide fundamental clues toward understanding the oceans' role in climate. Other

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N. S. Lucas, J. H. Simpson, T. P. Rippeth, and C. P. Old

good degree of consistency over two decades of variation in dissipation in both the mean values and the variability of ε over short time scales. In comparing these estimates of dissipation, it is important to remember that the ADCP mooring and shipborne ADCP measurements were separated horizontally by a distance of ~1 km, as indicated in Fig. 2 . As an alternative comparison of the two ε measurements, we show the corresponding VMP and ADCP-SF values plotted against each other in Fig. 12

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Jacques Testud, Erwan Le Bouar, Estelle Obligis, and Mustapha Ali-Mehenni

light and moderate rain, Marshall and Palmer (1948) found that N 0 was invariant with the rain rate and obtained a value of N 0 = 0.8 × 10 7 m −4 . This stable N 0 value seems to hold for large statistical averaging, while between a wide variety of events, or within one specific event, between convective and stratiform rain, N 0 variability appears quite large, covering two decades. An improved description may also be obtained from a three-parameter distribution as: N ( D ) = N 0 D μ

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Shannon Brown, Shailen Desai, Stephen Keihm, and Wenwen Lu

1. Introduction As the satellite data record of earth observations grows, the possibility of observing the global climate system and its variability becomes feasible. Among other things, this requires precise instrument calibration, free of long-term systematic errors that would otherwise be falsely interpreted as climatic signals. Microwave radiometers, in particular, which have been flying since the late 1970s, provide several geophysical variables that are key components of the climate

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Kaya Kanemaru, Takuji Kubota, Toshio Iguchi, Yukari N. Takayabu, and Riko Oki

. PR and DPR not only estimate precipitation rate accurately over both land and the oceans but also provide adequate information to derive precipitation characteristics (e.g., storm top height and precipitation vertical profile). Homogeneity of long-term PR/DPR data is essential to study water cycle changes related to interannual variability and decadal change. Long-term precipitation datasets— that is, data spanning 20–30 years—estimated by infrared and microwave imagers are also available (e

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Ming Li, Jiping Liu, Zhenzhan Wang, Hui Wang, Zhanhai Zhang, Lin Zhang, and Qinghua Yang

conduct preliminary intercomparisons of the consistency and discrepancy between the NWP reanalysis and satellite-based sea surface wind speed for the Southern Ocean from the climatological and interannual-to-decadal variability perspective. Such intercomparisons are useful for identifying geophysical regimes linked to the identified differences, which may need further investigation. The same “ice mask” for all four products is generated based on their sea ice cover or missing values. The monthly

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Nils H. Schade, Remon Sadikni, Annika Jahnke-Bornemann, Iris Hinrichs, Lydia Gates, Birger Tinz, and Detlef Stammer

20CRv2 ensemble between 1 and 4 hPa during the whole period is remarkable. Fig . 11. Difference in annual mean SLP (hPa) between the five reanalyses and KNSC in the four North Sea subregions (NW, NE, SW, SE), for the base period 1950–2010. All North Sea subregions reveal a similar decadal AT variability for KNSC ( Fig. 10 ), especially the climate regime shift signal by the end of the 1980s is well represented, although to a smaller extent in the northwestern subregion. This regime shift has been

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Rajendra Bhatt, David R. Doelling, Benjamin R. Scarino, Arun Gopalan, Conor O. Haney, Patrick Minnis, and Kristopher M. Bedka

employs a uniform sensor calibration approach for the AVHRR channel 1 (Ch1) and Ch2 records, combining the calibration results of multiple invariant Earth target techniques. Arabia-1, Libya-1, Libya-4, and Niger-1 desert PICS; Dome-C and Greenland polar ice PICS; and tropical DCC are used to evaluate the AVHRR sensor stability and to transfer the Aqua MODIS reference calibration over the AVHRR satellite record. The multiple PICS approach reduces the impact of the natural reflectance variability of

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R. D. Montoya and A. F. Osorio

variability in the north-east Atlantic Ocean over the last six decades . Ocean Modell. , 31 , 120 – 131 , doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.10.010 . Draper, D. W. , and Long D. G. , 2004 : Evaluating the effect of rain on SeaWinds scatterometer measurements . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , C02005 , doi: 10.1029/2002JC001741 . Durrant, T. H. , and Greenslade D. J. M , 2011 : Evaluation and implementation of AUSWAVE. CAWCR Tech. Rep. 41, 56 pp . Durrant, T. H. , Greenslade J. M. , and Simmonds I

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