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Scott J. Weaver

1. Introduction During the latter half of the twentieth century a warm season negative surface temperature anomaly developed over the central U.S. in the midst of continental warming. This observed cooling trend dubbed the “warming hole” ( Kunkel et al. 2006 ) reached a peak in the 1990s, however, it has weakened during the most recent decade, suggesting that decadal climate variability may be influential in the temporal fluctuations of Great Plains surface temperature anomalies. The extent to

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Chihiro Miyazaki and Tetsuzo Yasunari

Southeast Asia as 0.2°–0.3°C decade −1 . Given the small amplitude of temperature variations in the tropics, these values are noteworthy. In contrast, Kubota and Terao (2004) described a cooling trend since the last half of the 1970s in the interannual variation of the annual mean tropical tropospheric temperature. Some of these temperature trends have been explained by associated climate periodic variabilities, in addition to the anthropogenic climate change. Many studies (e.g., Hurrell and van Loon

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Martha W. Buckley, David Ferreira, Jean-Michel Campin, John Marshall, and Ross Tulloch

1. Introduction In a recent review paper, Lozier (2010) concluded that the most significant question concerning variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the role of the AMOC in creating decadal SST anomalies. Furthermore, she noted that no observational study to date has successfully linked SST changes to AMOC variability. The hypothesis that the AMOC plays an active role in decadal climate variability is rooted in the role of the AMOC in the mean meridional

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G. J. Boer

deviation of temperature and precipitation as climate warms together with changes in climate variability at longer time scales in terms of changes in decadal potential predictability. For climate, the temperature, precipitation, or other variable may be considered as the sum of an externally forced component Ω and an internally generated natural variability ω . The internally generated component may be further decomposed into a long time-scale potentially predictable component ν and a remaining

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Gerald A. Meehl and Julie M. Arblaster

-amplitude El Niño–like SST anomalies ( White et al. 1998 ; Meehl and Arblaster 2009 ; Meehl et al. 2009a ). Second, there is evidence that decadal time-scale climate variability in the Atlantic sector could affect climate in the Indo-Pacific region (e.g., Kucharski et al. 2007 ). Third, decadal time-scale variability associated with the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO; Power et al. 1999 ) produces low-amplitude positive and negative SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific with connections to Asian

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Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Julia Getzlaff, Jean-Marc Molines, and Gurvan Madec

water mass transformation may be blurred by a broad spectrum of “noise,” such as higher-frequency fluctuations related to local wind forcing or internal ocean dynamics (e.g., Baehr et al. 2004 ). The objective of this study is to contribute to unraveling the characteristics and dynamical causes of midlatitude MOC variability on interannual–decadal time scales by using a sequence of experiments with regional and global ocean models. Present understanding of MOC variability on various time scales

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Bo Qiu, Niklas Schneider, and Shuiming Chen

1. Introduction Decadal variability in the midlatitude North Pacific has received considerable attention in recent years because of its impact upon the Pacific marine ecosystems and long-term weather fluctuations over the North America continent. Comprehensive reviews on the North Pacific decadal variability can be found in recent articles by Pierce et al. (2001) , Mantua and Hare (2002) , Miller et al. (2004) , and the references listed therein. Analyses of the sea surface temperature (SST

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Yuanlong Li, Weiqing Han, Lei Zhang, and Fan Wang

in biodiversity patterns ( Depczynski et al. 2013 ; Pearce and Feng 2013 ; Wernberg et al. 2013 ). This event was succeeded by two weaker but also influential warming events in the following two austral summers, exerting persistent stress on local environment ( Feng et al. 2015 ; Zhang et al. 2017 ). Decadal SST variability in the SEIO is invoked to explain the reemergence of Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Specifically, the rapid decadal warming of the SEIO under La Niña–like condition of the Pacific

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Satoru Yokoi and Yukari N. Takayabu

Ropelewski 2002 ; Camargo et al. 2007a ). On decadal and interdecadal time scales, Yumoto and Matsuura (2001) and Matsuura et al. (2003) noted a large variability in total TC frequency in the WNP basin, with maximum values during the mid-1960s and early 1990s and minimum values during the mid-1970s. Ho et al. (2004) compared June–September passage frequency between the 1951–79 and 1980–2001 periods. Their Fig. 4 indicated that the frequency in the 1980–2001 period is significantly lower than that

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Hui Zhou, Dongliang Yuan, Lina Yang, Xiang Li, and William Dewar

1. Introduction Studies have suggested that the decadal North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) are dominated by their first empirical orthogonal function, often called the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ). Several studies have indicated that the PDO is not a single physical mode of oceanic variability, but rather the sum of several processes with different dynamic origins ( Newman et al. 2003 ; Vimont 2005 ; Schneider and Cornuelle

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