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David A. Schecter

of the DVRW equals the angular rotation frequency of the mean flow. The central radius r * of the critical layer is precisely defined by the resonance condition Figure 3a illustrates a typical set of critical layers for the DVRWs of a shallow-water MC. Through the extension of its velocity field, the DVRW can stir fluid everywhere beyond the core. Outside of the critical layer, fluid parcels moving with the mean flow experience rapid oscillations of positive and negative wave forcing, which

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Vladimir Zeitlin

able to create small-scale and/or high-velocity structures locally in the small-Ro flow, apart from external forcing and (steep) topography, are still ill understood. One way to address this problem is to thoroughly study the improved QG–FG equations and possible (cascade) processes which would be able to produce, starting from initial configurations with a single typical scale, regions of localized high vorticity (=high Ro) within the time scale of validity of these equations. It is worth noting

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Shuguang Wang, Fuqing Zhang, and Chris Snyder

: Gravity waves excited by jets: Propagation versus generation. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L18802 . doi:10.1029/2005GL023730 . Plougonven , R. , and C. Snyder , 2007 : Inertia–gravity waves spontaneously generated by jets and fronts. Part I: Different baroclinic life cycles. J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2502 – 2520 . Plougonven , R. , and F. Zhang , 2007 : On the forcing of inertia–gravity waves by synoptic-scale flows. J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 1737 – 1742 . Plougonven , R. , D. J

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K. Ngan, P. Bartello, and D. N. Straub

. Cambon , 1997 : On the three-dimensional instabilities of plane flows subjected to Coriolis force. Phys. Fluids , 9 , 1307 – 1316 . Leith , C. E. , 1980 : Nonlinear normal mode initialization and quasi-geostrophic theory. J. Atmos. Sci. , 37 , 958 – 968 . Lilly , D. K. , 1983 : Stratified turbulence and the mesoscale variability of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 749 – 761 . Lumley , J. L. , 1964 : The spectrum of nearly inertial turbulence in a stably stratified fluid

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