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Veljko Petković, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and John K. Kodros

-changing climate. Despite a long, albeit sparse, record [first known observations date back 2000 BCE ( Wang and Zhang 1988 )], globally complete precipitation measurements did not become available until the modern era of satellite Earth-observing systems that employ infrared and microwave radiometric techniques (e.g., Atlas and Thiele 1981 ). Achieving measurement standards of rainfall in atypical (i.e., extreme) environments on small spatiotemporal scales across the globe, however, has turned out to be more

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Kamil Mroz, Mario Montopoli, Alessandro Battaglia, Giulia Panegrossi, Pierre Kirstetter, and Luca Baldini

in the design for the DF and SF products. First, the clutter-free ranges closest to the ground are identified and it is determined whether precipitation reaches the surface. Second, the surface reference technique (SRT) is used to estimate the path-integrated attenuation (PIA) for each frequency due to the propagation through precipitation using the radar returns from the surface ( Meneghini et al. 2000 ). Different variations of the technique are run and a combination of them provides the final

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Jackson Tan, Walter A. Petersen, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Yudong Tian

), the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA; Huffman et al. 2007 ), the Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH; Joyce et al. 2004 ; Joyce and Xie 2011 ), and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks–Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS; Hong et al. 2004 ). These gridded precipitation datasets use a blend of data from various sources with advanced techniques to provide a near-global coverage with high spatial and

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