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H. Reed Ogrosky and Samuel N. Stechmann

average is removed from each dynamical field prior to the regression in order to remove the effects of low-frequency variability due to, for example, ENSO. A separate regression equation is solved for each variable at each longitude, latitude, pressure level, and time lag. The resulting linear regression coefficients are then used to produce a composite picture of the evolution of each wave type. In these composites, the winds are plotted only at locations where they are deemed to be significant at

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chris D. Thorncroft

-scale environments and convective properties. The variability of large-scale thermodynamic and dynamic fields as a function of AEW phase and geography is also examined and used to explain the contrasts in convective properties. Section 4 summarizes the results and offers some conclusions. 2. Data and methodology As in the companion paper JT14 , this study uses data from TRMM and the ERA-Interim reanalysis from the period June–September (JAS) 1998–2012. TRMM PR–based precipitation features (PFs), defined as

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Ronald L. Holle, Kenneth L. Cummins, and William A. Brooks

stroke location accuracy (LA) have been validated over Florida ( Mallick et al. 2014 ). The validation showed a GLD360 CG flash DE (relative to the NLDN in Florida) of 67%, a CG stroke DE of 37%, and a CG stroke median LA of 2.0 km. The performance of GLD360 over North America is estimated to be a CG flash DE of 70% and a median CG stroke LA of 2–5 km. GLD360 stroke densities in the second portion of this study are also in 20 km by 20 km grid squares within geographical boundaries extending beyond

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Eric B. Wendoloski, David R. Stauffer, and Astrid Suarez

model with terrain-following vertical coordinates and Arakawa C horizontal gridpoint staggering ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). The WRF configuration includes four one-way nested domains of 12-, 4-, 1.3-, and 0.4-km horizontal grid spacing with the 1.3- and 0.4-km nests centered over central Pennsylvania and the Nittany Valley ( Fig. 1a ). The location and topography of the 0.4-km domain with respect to the topography of the 1.3-km domain are shown in Figs. 1b and 1c . Initial and lateral boundary

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

active period as 5–17 January. Fig . 2. MJO indices from Wheeler–Hendon method (solid) and OMI method (dashed). Each dot represents one day in January 2010. Colors on both curves indicate the movement of the MJO through the Maritime Continent as defined by the WH index: lead up 1–9 Jan (green), active 10–19 Jan (red), and follow-on 20–31 Jan (blue). Geographic locations follow the convention of Wheeler and Hendon (2004) . Fig . 3. (a) Time series of relative humidity, (b) cloud fraction, (c) CAPE

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Andrew I. Barrett, Suzanne L. Gray, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Nigel M. Roberts, David M. Schultz, and Jonathan G. Fairman Jr.

of potentially high-impact weather: terrain-locked convective bands. In particular, we study four recent such events in the United Kingdom to determine whether convection-permitting ensemble simulations succeed in accurately representing the bands. Specifically, we address the following questions: Do convection-permitting ensembles capture the structure, location, timing, intensity, and duration of quasi-stationary convective bands? What evaluation methods provide useful insights into forecast

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Campbell D. Watson and Todd P. Lane

in the prefrontal air mass, sourced from the Coral Sea off the northeast coast of Australia, advected southward over the Alps where part of it falls as precipitation [e.g., see Fig. 21 in Wilson and Stern (1985) ]. Community understanding of cold fronts in Australia escalated from 1979 when the Australian Cold Fronts Research Program was initiated and Reeder and Smith (1992) provide a review of results from this program. Fig . 1. (a) The regional geography of Australia [from Qi et al. (2000

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Joshua Aikins, Katja Friedrich, Bart Geerts, and Binod Pokharel

and rotated with the mean axis of the Sierra Madre Range is also overlaid with a red box, which is the analysis region used in the Hovmöller diagram in Fig. 2 . The purple wedge starting from the DOW location at Battle Pass indicates the range of targeted DOW RHI azimuths used to calculate median profiles of Z and Z DR ( Fig. 7 ). (b) The DOW radar beam height (km AGL) calculated for an elevation scan of 0°. (c) The calculated fraction of the DOW radar beam that is blocked for a 0° elevation

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George R. Alvey III, Jonathan Zawislak, and Edward Zipser

intensifying TCs [particularly those that undergo rapid intensification (RI)] have a higher proportion of convective bursts within the inner core? 3) If important, is there a favored location for these bursts during intensification? Rodgers et al. (1998 , 2000) and Guimond et al. (2010) analyzed several TCs in which intense convective bursts precede or are coincident with the start of RI. One hypothesis for how convective bursts are favorable for intensification is that they moisten the middle

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Ben Jolly, Adrian J. McDonald, Jack H. J. Coggins, Peyman Zawar-Reza, John Cassano, Matthew Lazzara, Geoffery Graham, Graeme Plank, Orlon Petterson, and Ethan Dale

) provide a unique opportunity to assess Polar WRF output from AMPS at very high resolution. Fig . 1. Map of deployment area with topographic contours every 250 m. Ross Island (marked by proxy through Mt. Erebus and Mt. Terror) is situated in the top-left segment, with Scott Base and McMurdo Station located at the tip of the peninsula on the south side (near Pegasus North). The smaller circular markers denote SWS locations while the larger, labeled ones denote existing AWS locations. SWS are color coded

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