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Mary H. Hayden, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, and Olga V. Wilhelmi

2002 ). During the August 2003 heat wave in Europe, mortality from extreme heat in France and Italy was associated with social isolation ( Fouillet et al. 2006 ; Michelozzi et al. 2005 ) as well as environmental factors such as building materials and, in urban heat island settings, bedrooms located on the top floor of a home near the roof ( Vandentorren et al. 2006 ). Interestingly enough, our research shows that the study neighborhoods are places where social cohesion is strong despite negative

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Emily D. Esplin, Jennifer R. Marlon, Anthony Leiserowitz, and Peter D. Howe

; Hajat et al. 2010 ; Klinenberg 2015 ). Some studies also show that more people suffer heat-related health symptoms and death during the first heat wave of the warm season even if it is less severe than subsequent heat events ( Anderson and Bell 2009 , 2011 ; Liss et al. 2017 ). Highly developed areas with little vegetation create urban heat islands that prevent people’s ability to cool down sufficiently at night as the heat continues to radiate from buildings and impervious surfaces ( Clarke 1972

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George Maier, Andrew Grundstein, Woncheol Jang, Chao Li, Luke P. Naeher, and Marshall Shepherd

and mortality via changes in the frequency and magnitude of the hazard and/or changes in vulnerability. Warming of the climate system will likely result in an increase in extreme heat events ( Meehl et al. 2000 ; Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ). Additionally, increasing numbers of people are moving to urban environments ( United Nations 2006 ; Luber and McGeehin 2008 ; National Research Council Committee on Urban Meteorology 2012 ), resulting in greater heat exposure from the urban heat island effect

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Emma Ferranti, Lee Chapman, Caroline Lowe, Steve McCulloch, David Jaroszweski, and Andrew Quinn

does not have the automatic tensioning of the more modern equipment, or poorly maintained equipment, or at the joins between older and new equipment, heat-related problems can occur. The incidence of overhead line sag is also higher in urban areas ( RSSB 2015 ), because of the urban heat island effect, which can result in urban areas being several degrees warmer than their surroundings ( Oke 1973 ). Cities are often critical transport nodes, and a failure here can be very problematic, quickly

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Kerstin K. Zander, Simon Moss, and Stephen T. Garnett

. ABS , 2018 : Australian Demographic Statistics, June 2018. Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed 13 March 2019, . Akbari , H. , and D. Kolokotsa , 2016 : Three decades of urban heat islands and mitigation technologies research . Energy Build. , 133 , 834 – 842 , . 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.09.067 Akerlof , K. , E. W. Maibach , D

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Alexia Karwat and Christian L. E. Franzke

names (map sources: and ). Table 2. List of studied cities in Germany, France, and Spain sorted by number on the map ( Fig. 1 ). In many statistical temperature analyses, the urban heat island effect ( Kalnay and Cai 2003 ) is removed since it is not a direct climate effect. However, since we are here interested in the direct effect of heat on humans, we do not need to remove the urban heat

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Nancy E. Westcott

addressing health aspects of excessive heat conditions ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2006 , 2011 ). Information provided includes not only planning for a heat wave and how to keep cool in the midst of a heat wave, but also information on techniques to reduce the heat island effect (e.g., green roofs, cooler paving materials, added vegetation). b. Water resource issues and utilities 1) Water resources If such a heat wave were to occur without significant planning, water shortages seem likely

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E. R. M. Archer van Garderen

discussed below) on cattle farming, yet heat stress and risk implications for cattle have been well documented. Cattle farming is impacted by increased temperatures in multiple ways. Research has focused particularly on the issue of heat stress. Hansen (2009) describes heat stress as the environment that drives body temperature above a particular temperature threshold, above which key physical functions begin to be disrupted (e.g., feeding and reproductive health). Hansen (2009) also observes that

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Matthew J. Cutler, Jennifer R. Marlon, Peter D. Howe, and Anthony Leiserowitz

communications would be “unfeasible and inappropriate” ( Hawkins et al. 2017 ). They do note, however, that the NWS has undertaken efforts to collaborate with local health departments and officials to emphasize important heat-related health issues and local context (i.e., urban heat island effect) in extreme heat warnings to the general public. The results of our study have implications for efforts such as these by policy makers and stakeholders who are concerned with the public health risks of heat waves

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov

, . 10.3390/ijerph110100952 van Hoof , J. , 2008 : Forty years of Fanger’s model of thermal comfort: Comfort for all? Indoor Air , 18 , 182 – 201 , . 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2007.00516.x van Hove , L. W. A. , C. M. J. Jacobs , B. G. Heusinkveld , J. A. Elbers , B. L. Van Driel , and A. A. M. Holtslag , 2015 : Temporal and spatial variability of urban heat island and thermal comfort within the

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