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B. Offerle, P. Jonsson, I. Eliasson, and C. S. B. Grimmond

its preexisting landscape ( Oke 1987 ). The urban heat island (UHI), perhaps the most distinctive urban climate feature, is associated with the differences between the urban surface and it surroundings. For tropical semiarid cities, the UHI shows strong seasonal differences between wet and dry seasons ( Jauregui et al. 1992 ). Typically the UHI reaches its maximum intensity during the dry season although both wet and dry season heat islands may exist. The seasonal changes are attributed to the

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Lesley F. Tarleton and Richard W. Katz

etal. has been performed. As evidenced by substantial increasing trends in both the mean minimum and maximumtemperatures, this area has experienced a marked heat island effect in recent decades. Bailing et at. found that'a statistical model for climate change in which simply a trend in the mean is permitted is inadequate to explainthe observed trend in occurrence of extreme maximum temperatures. The present reanalysis establishes that- by allowing for the observed decrease in the standard deviation

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Yang Yang, Shang-Ping Xie, and Jan Hafner

1. Introduction Satellite observations frequently reveal interesting cloud patterns in the atmospheric wakes of mountainous islands ( Hubert and Krueger 1962 ; Chopra and Hubert 1965 ; Chopra 1973 ; Scorer 1986 ; Smith et al. 1997 ; Young and Zawislak 2006 ). Depending on the large-scale wind and temperature profiles, and the mountain height, these island wakes can take one of many forms including a pair of counterrotating vortices trapped in the immediate lee of the island ( Smith and

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Richard Neale and Julia Slingo

Northern Hemisphere winter, in particular, the diurnal amplitude of convective rainfall over the islands can be three times as great as that over the adjacent ocean. This is in response to the smaller thermal heat capacity of the land surface leading to large diurnal variations in low-level instability. However, there are further complications to the response, since the strong variability over the islands is able to propagate out over the oceans as gravity waves leading to coherent variations in the

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Roxana C. Wajsowicz and Edwin K. Schneider

throughflow and the global climate system. J. Climate , 11 , 676 – 689 . Wajsowicz , R. C. , 1993 : The circulation of the depth-integrated flow around an island with application to the Indonesian throughflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 23 , 1407 – 1484 . Fig . 1. The 10-yr averages from the control run of (a) SST, (b) net surface heat flux (positive into the atmosphere), (c) wind stress, and (d) precipitation. Contour intervals are 1.5°C, 20 W m −2 , and 2 mm day −1 , respectively for (a), (b), and

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Robert K. Kaufmann, Karen C. Seto, Annemarie Schneider, Zouting Liu, Liming Zhou, and Weile Wang

decades has generated significant understanding of the relationship between urban areas and climate. Many of these studies have been extensively reviewed in the literature ( Souch and Grimmond 2006 ; Kanda 2006 ; Shepherd 2005 ; Voogt and Oke 2003 ). Here we summarize a few key findings relevant to our study. There is now a coherent understanding of urban surface energy balance dynamics, with a well-established urban heat island effect that appears stronger during the night than the day ( Lo et al

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Axel Timmermann, Shayne McGregor, and Fei-Fei Jin

-surface layer, which leads to a shoaling of the thermocline and a sea level decrease. Moreover, wind stress curl forcing triggers long westward-propagating oceanic Rossby waves that are accompanied by sea level anomalies along their propagation pathways. Thus, wind-induced changes in upper-ocean heat content in the tropical oceans strongly contribute to the regional characteristics of sea level anomalies on interannual to centennial time scales. Recent assessments of future sea level rise have focused on

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J. A. M. Green and A. Schmittner

was reported that Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in Antarctica has started a rapid retreat that has doubled the mass of ice being discharged annually from the glacier ( Favier et al. 2014 ; McMillan et al. 2014 ; Rignot et al. 2014 ) and that it may continue to change rapidly over the next decades ( Seroussi et al. 2014 ). Here we show, using a coupled Earth system model ( Weaver et al. 2001 ), that even the modest increased input of freshwater from PIG can have a large-scale impact on the ocean and

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Robert C. Balling Jr., Jon A. Skindlov, and Daniel H. Phillips

ABSTRACT Over the past few decades, heat-island related temperature increases in Phoenix, Arizona have been similarto the temperature increases predicted in a number of greenhouse simulation experiments. In this investigation,we use the Phoenix climate record to assess how increasing summertime mean temperatures are related tochanges in the extreme maximum and minimum temperatures. Generally, rising mean temperatures are associatedwith substantial changes in the occurrence of extreme minimum

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David E. Parker

European trends in winter are explained below in terms of atmospheric circulation changes. In the extratropical Northern Hemisphere north of 20°N (NH20; Fig. 6c,d and Table 1 ), there was no significant change of T min on windy nights relative to calm nights in summer, when atmospheric circulation changes are less influential. Any urban warming signal should be most evident in summer, when urban heat islands are stronger owing to greater storage of solar heat in urban structures. For 1950

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