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Chiel C. van Heerwaarden and Jordi Vilà Guerau de Arellano

cloud formation are sensitive to heterogeneous forcings at the land surface, which depend on the spatial variability of land use, soil moisture content, and topography. Heterogeneous forcings occur over a wide range of scale levels, but the strongest effects on ABL properties are found when the heterogeneities are in the meso- γ scale (2–20 km) ( Mahrt 2000 ) because they modify the horizontal and vertical structure of the ABL by inducing circulations. A consequence is that the effects of

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Elford G. Astling and Lyle H. Horn

mean latitudinal profiles of outgoing long-wave radiation. The meanprofiles revealed an insufficient estimate of limb darkening in the data. Consequently, only subsatelliteobservations are used to obtain mean latitudinal profiles for oceanic and continental areas. The distinctdifferences which are noted between the land and ocean profiles are discussed. Finally, the means obtainedfrom the TIROS II data are found to agree well with estimates of the terrestrial radiation based on theoretical

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H. Lettau and J. Zabransky

718 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL~;~m25Interrelated Changes of Wind Profile Structure and Richardson Number in Air Flow from Land to Inland LakesH. Lv. TTAU AND J. ZABRANSK-(Manuscript received 3 April 1968) A semi-empirical model for wind profile modification, in airflow from land to water on the 2-kin scale, isdiscussed using 1950 Lake Hefner data. Initial (rough-surface) and finai

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Mohamed S. Ghonima, Thijs Heus, Joel R. Norris, and Jan Kleissl

layer ( Sandu et al. 2010 ). An accurate assessment of coastal stratocumulus cloud evolution can only be made if all of these factors are considered. In this paper, we use large-eddy simulation (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM) to examine how cloud-top entrainment, surface Bowen ratio, and advection by the sea breeze contribute to cloud breakup during the morning transition of stratocumulus over coastal land. We will first use LES of some idealized cases to obtain a reference state of the cloud

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David L. T. Anderson and Julian P. McCreary

) Profile of Q along the equator used for thecontrol run in Section 5 (Fig. 6, 7). The value of Q over land isgiven by Eqs. (3.5) and (5.1) and does not change with time.Initially, the value of Q over the ocean is shown by the dashedline. Subsequently, this changes as the SST evolves. (Lower) Profileof Q along the equator for the "Indian" Ocean configuration givenby (5.3) and used in Fig. 9.624JOURNALOF THE ATMOSPHERIC b 0SCIENCESVOL. 42, NO. 6DaysDays20002000400040006000 15000km

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Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Chengxing Zhai, T. Janice Shen, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Jason N. S. Cole, Knut von Salzen, Leo J. Donner, Charles Seman, Anthony Del Genio, Larissa S. Nazarenko, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Masahiro Watanabe, Cyril Morcrette, Tsuyoshi Koshiro, Hideaki Kawai, Andrew Gettelman, Luis Millán, William G. Read, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Yasko Kasai, and Masato Shiotani

notable feature in Fig. 2 is that SMILES observed pIWPs over land regions (e.g., South America, Africa) peak around the late afternoon (1500–1800 LST), which will be discussed in more detail in the following two sections in comparison to model-simulated values. Fig . 2. The mean values of pIWP from SMILES binned at eight LST intervals. All SMILES measurements made from October 2009 to April 2010 are used in computing the average. 3. Climate models and MERRA reanalysis For this study, 10 climate

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Luis Garcia-Carreras, Douglas J. Parker, and John H. Marsham

counterparts—for example, when comparing domain-average profiles for homogeneous and heterogeneous land surfaces ( Zhong and Doran 1998 ; Doran and Zhong 2000 ; Kang and Davis 2008 ). In the case of Zhong and Doran (1998) and Doran and Zhong (2000) , this can be attributed to the relatively coarse resolution used compared to other studies ( Weaver 2009 ; Kang and Davis 2009 ). Another reason for the observed discrepancies could be due to the fact that domain-average fluxes do not take into account

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R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, J. V. Martins, Y. J. Kaufman, A. Plana-Fattori, J. Redemann, and B. Wenny

and aircraft campaigns provided an unprecedented density of potentially useful comparisons of sun-photometer data to MODIS, providing data to evaluate MODIS aerosol products over both ocean and land. Specifically, this extensive dataset also could be used to provide insight into the generally poor U.S. East Coast land comparisons that were introduced in Remer et al. (2005) . In section 2 , we provide a brief introduction to the MODIS aerosol algorithms and products, paying special attention to

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Jeffrey R. Barnes

forwhich the wind direction was within a nominallander interference range. The gaps due to missingdata, or to lander interference in the case of temperature, were filled using a cubic spline interpolation, or in the case of several very long holes (of asol or slightly longer) using an averaging of the datafrom the previous and following sols. At most, 10%2004 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES

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Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, and Tomoe Nasuno

microphysics on regional differences among land, ocean in the tropics, and parts of the midlatitude areas (20°–36°S, 20°–36°N) using two microphysics schemes. Additionally, we analyze the cloud statistics in terms of cloud-top temperatures and PTHs from CloudSat . In section 2 , the experimental design and observational data are described. In section 3 , the horizontal distributions of cloud-top temperature and accumulated precipitation are evaluated. We also compare the vertical structure of the

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