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Ming Li and Chris Garrett

64 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Is Langmuir Circulation Driven by Surface Waves or Surface Cooling? MING LI AND CHRIS GARRETTCentre for Earth and Ocean Research, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia. Canada(Manuscript received 7 December 1993, in final form 6 May 1994) The ratio of the buoyancy force driving thermal convection to the surface wave vortex

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J. Malarkey and S. A. Thorpe

1. Introduction Langmuir circulation (Lc) is reviewed by Leibovich (1983) , Pollard (1977) , and Thorpe (2004) . It is now recognized as a major contributor to turbulence and dispersion in the upper layers of lakes, coastal seas, and the ocean. Instability of the flow driven by wind and waves beneath a water surface results in the formation of a regular array of counterrotating vortices within “Langmuir cells” with axes directed downwind. Following earlier analysis by Thorpe (1992) and

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Hong Sik Min and Yign Noh

1. Introduction There have been a large number of papers investigating Langmuir circulation (LC), including theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies, but many important aspects remain yet to be clearly understood (see, e.g., Pollard 1977 ; Leibovich 1983 ). Especially, we cannot predict properly how LC is modified by stratification and under which condition it breaks down, although it is expected to play a prominent role for the vertical transport of heat and momentum in the upper

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David Farmer and Ming Li

1426 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Patterns of Bubble Clouds Organized by Langmuir Circulation DAVID FARMER AND MING LI*Instit~tte of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada(Manu~crlpt received 18 July 1994, in final form 26 October 1994)ABSTRACT A cpmmonly observed property of near-surface bubble distributions is their collective organization into longrows aligned with

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Yign Noh, Hong Sik Min, and Siegfried Raasch

1. Introduction The most significant characteristic of the ocean mixed layer in contrast to the atmospheric boundary layer is the presence of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation at the free surface. Breaking of surface waves generates large amounts of small-scale turbulence near the sea surface, and the interaction between the wind-driven surface shear and the Stokes drift of surface waves generates Langmuir circulations that are large circulation cells aligned in the wind direction (see, e

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Alan J. Faller and Stephen J. Auer

hierarchy of theoretical and numerical models for the dispersion of discrete floating tracers on lakes andoceans is presented. Central to these models is the role of Langmuir circuhtions, which concentrate tracers intonarrow windwws thus inhibiting tracer dispersion. But time-dependent Langmuir circulations cause the rowsof tracers to wander and to split, by local time dependence and by downwind advection, thus promotingdispersion. Accordingly, the Langtnuir circulations generally render the smafler

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Sidney Leibovich and Samuel Paolucci

186 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAP'HY VOLVOM- 10The Langmuir Circulation Instability as a Mixing Mechanism in the Upper Ocean SIDNEY LEIBOVICH AND SAMUEL PAOLUCCI1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853(Manuscript received 7 $une 1979, in final form 28 August 1979)ABSTRACT A numerical study of the fully nonlinear instability of the ocean to Langmuir circulations is reported.The extended Craik-Leibovich theory is used to compute the

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Werner Bauer, Pranav Chandramouli, Bertrand Chapron, Long Li, and Etienne Mémin

, or turbulence interact with the large-scale flow in a nonlinear way. These interactions and their effects must be adequately modeled. A purely diffusive model, describing the mixing effects of the small-scale components on the resolved system’s variables, will generally fail to represent the emergence of secondary circulations such as Langmuir cells or velocity streaks in wall-bounded turbulent flows. The interaction of surface gravity waves with the mean current has been a subject of intense

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S. A. Thorpe

350 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUM-22The Breakup of Langmuir Circulation and the Instability of an Array of Vortices S. A. THORPEDepartment of Oceanography, The University, Southampton, United Kingdom(Manuscript received I February 1991, in final form 20 June 1991) The presence and pattern of Langmuir circulation can be detected using side-scan sonar. The

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A. Basovich

1. Introduction The phenomenon of Langmuir circulations (LC) is one of the more important processes in the upper ocean because, to a large degree, it is the process responsible for atmospheric and oceanic interaction, including the exchange of heat, momentum, and gas in the surface layer ( Langmuir 1938 ; Leibovich 1983 ; Smith 1992 , 1998 ; Thorpe 2004 ; Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ). LC appear at the sea surface as a system of streaks aligned roughly with the direction of the wind. The

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