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Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

interface, bubbles, and droplets may play an important role in these fluxes. For example, it was found that breaking waves ( Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Thorpe 1993 ; Melville 1994 ; Anis and Moum 1995 ; Melville 1996 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Veron and Melville 1999a ), along with small-scale Langmuir circulations and coherent structures ( Melville et al. 1998 ; Veron and Melville 1999b , 2001 ), may lead to enhanced levels of turbulence and mixing, and heat and gas transfer ( Jähne et al. 1987 ; Hasse

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P. Wadhams, J. P. Wilkinson, and A. Kaletzky

1. Introduction Recent evidence of changes in the Arctic indicate that the sea ice cover is undergoing a significant thinning ( Rothrock et al. 1999 ; Wadhams and Davis 2000 ) and retreat (e.g., Bjørgo et al. 1997 ). General circulation models using greenhouse gas forcing predict that the Arctic ice cover will continue to diminish because of global warming and may become seasonal by the 2080s. At the same time, it is possible that the current ice shrinkage is a response to oceanic and

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W. Kendall Melville, Luc Lenain, Daniel R. Cayan, Mati Kahru, Jan P. Kleissl, P. F. Linden, and Nicholas M. Statom

aligned in the northeast–southwest direction. These are believed to be the surface signatures of Langmuir circulation (or Langmuir turbulence) that are approximately aligned with the wind and the direction of dominant wave propagation. (b),(c) Evolution of the omnidirectional wavenumber spectrum as the aircraft flew across the Loop Current. The color scale represents the average SST over the length of the wave record (4 km) used in the spectral analysis, also shown as a function of latitude in (b). d

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Len Zedel

Langmuir circulation, air-sea momentum and gasexchange, and wave breaking. A supplementary observation required for any of these studies is the surfacewave condition prevailing at the time of the acousticobservations. An obvious way to acquire wave-heightdata for such acoustically based studies is to use vertically oriented sonar to measure local sea surface elevations directly: this can be achieved by recording atime series of surface range estimates. Thorpe and Hall(1983) noted the possibility for

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Ramsey R. Harcourt and Eric A. D’Asaro

-09-1-0174, N00014-08-1-0575, N00014-08-1-0447, and N00014-08-1-0577), and by a grant of HPC resources from the Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Program. REFERENCES Craik, A. D. D. , and Leibovich S. , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulation. J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro, E. A. , 2001 : Turbulent vertical kinetic energy in the ocean mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 3530 – 3537 . 10

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Reza Marsooli, Philip M. Orton, George Mellor, Nickitas Georgas, and Alan F. Blumberg

tidal departure, known as storm surge , due to the combined hydrodynamic effects of a passing storm ( National Ocean Service 2016 ). The influence of storm surges and astronomical tides on the storm tide at the coast can be simulated using a coastal ocean circulation model based on the three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes equations or their depth-integrated derivatives (e.g., Blumberg and Mellor 1980 ; Luettich et al. 1992 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ; Chen et al. 2006 ). Locally, the

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Jerome A. Smith

1. Introduction In the spring of 2017, an Office of Naval Research (ONR) departmental research initiative, directed at understanding the evolution of Langmuir circulation under rapidly changing conditions, funded a multi-investigator experiment [the Langmuir Cell Departmental Research Initiative (LCDRI)] that was carried out in the South California Bight. As part of this multiplatform multi-institutional effort, my group [the “Multiscale Ocean Dynamics” (MOD) group at Scripps Institution of

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Eunjeong Lee, Yign Noh, and Naoki Hirose

(LES) results ( Noh et al. 2004 , 2011a ). It is a turbulence closure model using eddy diffusivity and viscosity, similar to the Mellor–Yamada model ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ), but it reproduces a uniform mixed layer, consistent with bulk models (e.g., Niiler and Kraus 1977 ), by taking into account the effects of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. Under the condition of weak wind and strong solar radiation, however, the downward heat transport from the sea surface is suppressed in the

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Guillaume Novelli, Cédric M. Guigand, Charles Cousin, Edward H. Ryan, Nathan J. M. Laxague, Hanjing Dai, Brian K. Haus, and Tamay M. Özgökmen

well as on the small boat, with a handheld anemometer every 15 min. Both measurements agreed well and the NOAA measurements are used in the results presented below. The observed wind waves reached a maximum significant wave height of 1 m, with occasional whitecaps from breaking waves. Floating seagrass and sargassum weeds were observed to gather into windrows at moments, signaling the presence of Langmuir circulations, as a result of the interaction of surface Stokes drift and vertical shear

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Hyejin Ok, Yign Noh, and Yeonju Choi

summer in the Southern Ocean, which is also reported in many OGCMs, ( Li et al. 2001 ; Kara et al. 2003 ; Gnanadesikan et al. 2006 ; Noh and Lee 2008 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Schiller and Ridgway 2013 ; Noh et al. 2016 ), may be due to the neglect of the contribution of Langmuir circulation in the ocean mixed layer model ( Belcher et al. 2012 ; Noh et al. 2016 ). The negative ε along the equator may reflect too strong equatorial upwelling, which is common in most OGCMs (e.g., Stockdale et al

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