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Len Zedel

Langmuir circulation, air-sea momentum and gasexchange, and wave breaking. A supplementary observation required for any of these studies is the surfacewave condition prevailing at the time of the acousticobservations. An obvious way to acquire wave-heightdata for such acoustically based studies is to use vertically oriented sonar to measure local sea surface elevations directly: this can be achieved by recording atime series of surface range estimates. Thorpe and Hall(1983) noted the possibility for

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Rich Pawlowicz
,
Cédric Chavanne
, and
Dany Dumont

consistent with Langmuir circulation ( Thorpe 2004 ), in which small-scale motions within the mixed layer, treated here as “random,” are instead coherently organized into long wind-aligned rolls separated by alternating convergence and divergence zones. The possibility of Langmuir circulation can also be estimated by calculating the turbulent Langmuir number La t for our model-determined values of Stokes drift and friction velocity: (25) La t = [ u w * / u s ( 0 ) ] 1 / 2 ≈ 0.33 , which is very typical

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Ramsey R. Harcourt
and
Eric A. D’Asaro

-09-1-0174, N00014-08-1-0575, N00014-08-1-0447, and N00014-08-1-0577), and by a grant of HPC resources from the Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Program. REFERENCES Craik, A. D. D. , and Leibovich S. , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulation. J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro, E. A. , 2001 : Turbulent vertical kinetic energy in the ocean mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 3530 – 3537 . 10

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Reza Marsooli
,
Philip M. Orton
,
George Mellor
,
Nickitas Georgas
, and
Alan F. Blumberg

tidal departure, known as storm surge , due to the combined hydrodynamic effects of a passing storm ( National Ocean Service 2016 ). The influence of storm surges and astronomical tides on the storm tide at the coast can be simulated using a coastal ocean circulation model based on the three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes equations or their depth-integrated derivatives (e.g., Blumberg and Mellor 1980 ; Luettich et al. 1992 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ; Chen et al. 2006 ). Locally, the

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Eunjeong Lee
,
Yign Noh
, and
Naoki Hirose

(LES) results ( Noh et al. 2004 , 2011a ). It is a turbulence closure model using eddy diffusivity and viscosity, similar to the Mellor–Yamada model ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ), but it reproduces a uniform mixed layer, consistent with bulk models (e.g., Niiler and Kraus 1977 ), by taking into account the effects of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. Under the condition of weak wind and strong solar radiation, however, the downward heat transport from the sea surface is suppressed in the

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Jerome A. Smith

1. Introduction In the spring of 2017, an Office of Naval Research (ONR) departmental research initiative, directed at understanding the evolution of Langmuir circulation under rapidly changing conditions, funded a multi-investigator experiment [the Langmuir Cell Departmental Research Initiative (LCDRI)] that was carried out in the South California Bight. As part of this multiplatform multi-institutional effort, my group [the “Multiscale Ocean Dynamics” (MOD) group at Scripps Institution of

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Guillaume Novelli
,
Cédric M. Guigand
,
Charles Cousin
,
Edward H. Ryan
,
Nathan J. M. Laxague
,
Hanjing Dai
,
Brian K. Haus
, and
Tamay M. Özgökmen

well as on the small boat, with a handheld anemometer every 15 min. Both measurements agreed well and the NOAA measurements are used in the results presented below. The observed wind waves reached a maximum significant wave height of 1 m, with occasional whitecaps from breaking waves. Floating seagrass and sargassum weeds were observed to gather into windrows at moments, signaling the presence of Langmuir circulations, as a result of the interaction of surface Stokes drift and vertical shear

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Hyejin Ok
,
Yign Noh
, and
Yeonju Choi

summer in the Southern Ocean, which is also reported in many OGCMs, ( Li et al. 2001 ; Kara et al. 2003 ; Gnanadesikan et al. 2006 ; Noh and Lee 2008 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Schiller and Ridgway 2013 ; Noh et al. 2016 ), may be due to the neglect of the contribution of Langmuir circulation in the ocean mixed layer model ( Belcher et al. 2012 ; Noh et al. 2016 ). The negative ε along the equator may reflect too strong equatorial upwelling, which is common in most OGCMs (e.g., Stockdale et al

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Alexei Sentchev
,
Max Yaremchuk
,
Denis Bourras
,
Ivane Pairaud
, and
Philippe Fraunié

each of the four transects. The error accounts for contributions from other components of the SBL dynamics (e.g., Stokes drift, Langmuir circulation) and for the limitations of the heuristic background current approximation. To further verify the consistency of the Ekman constraints imposed in our EVP estimation, a comparison was done with two other EVP parameterization schemes. The eddy viscosity coefficient resulting from the current velocity shear has been traditionally related to the

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Kristin Zeiden
,
Jim Thomson
, and
James Girton

obtained with two different platforms: SWIFTs ( Thomson 2012 ) and a Liquid Robotics SV3 Wave Glider ( Hine et al. 2009 ; Thomson et al. 2018 ). The SWIFTs and Wave Glider were equipped with the same ADCPs (Nortek Signature 1000), but operated under very different environmental conditions. The SWIFTs were deployed in the Southern California Bight in late March 2017 during the Office of Naval Research “Langmuir Circulation” Departmental Research Initiative (LC-DRI) field experiment. The Wave Glider was

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