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D. J. Bernie, S. J. Woolnough, J. M. Slingo, and E. Guilyardi

layer does not shoal or warm significantly during the day. This is evident from the almost negligible diurnal signal of SST during the cooling phases marked “C” on Fig. 1 . By contrast, the suppressed phase of the MJO is associated with very high insolation, approaching 1000 W m −2 , and very light winds. During these periods, when the diurnal variability is large, the very light winds mean that there is likely to be very little Langmuir circulation or surface wave breaking, so the absence of these

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Sabique Langodan, Luigi Cavaleri, Angela Pomaro, Jesus Portilla, Yasser Abualnaja, and Ibrahim Hoteit

implications of a varying wave climate in the Red Sea. Wu et al. (2015) have recently framed well the importance of wind waves in defining the vertical structure of the ocean. Together with surface breaking, Stokes drift, and Langmuir circulation, they pointed out to the importance of wave orbital motion in stirring the upper layers of the ocean and deepening the thermocline (see also Huang and Qiao 2010 ). In this respect, the decrease of wave height, especially of the E1 system, is not without

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C. Prodhomme, L. Batté, F. Massonnet, P. Davini, O. Bellprat, V. Guemas, and F. J. Doblas-Reyes

I. Introduction Climate forecasting at a subseasonal to interannual time range is now done routinely and operationally by an increasing number of research centers and institutions. Although forecasting systems using numerical general circulation models (GCMs) have made substantial progress in the last decades ( Doblas-Reyes et al. 2013 ), systematic errors and the misrepresentations of key processes still hinder forecast quality and limit the value of dynamical prediction in certain areas of

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Stephan Juricke, Tim N. Palmer, and Laure Zanna

2016 ) and theoretical frameworks (e.g., Berloff and McWilliams 2002 ) to implementations in global uncoupled ( Brankart 2013 ; Brankart et al. 2015 ) and coupled general circulation models (GCMs) ( Williams 2012 ; Andrejczuk et al. 2016 ; Williams et al. 2016 ). These studies assume that the unresolved variability in the subgrid scales and the related error may have an impact on the resolved flow variability and its mean state. This becomes especially important when a general assumption of

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Carol Anne Clayson and Aidong Chen

includes the skin surface temperature parameterization developed by Wick (1995) , modified by Schlüssel et al. (1997) to include the effects of precipitation and the diurnal thermocline. Parameterizations for Langmuir circulation and wave breaking effects have also been included. The ocean mixed layer model has been evaluated over many timescales and in many locations, including data from the TOGA COARE pilot cruise ( Kantha and Clayson 1994 ) and the IOP ( Webster et al. 1996 ). Comparisons of the

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J. Keith Moore, Keith Lindsay, Scott C. Doney, Matthew C. Long, and Kazuhiro Misumi

documentation, model output, and all model source code are available online ( ). The BEC module runs within the ocean physics component of CESM1 ( Gent et al. 2011 ), which is the Parallel Ocean Program, version 2 ( Smith et al. 2010 ). A detailed description and evaluation of the ocean general circulation model is given by Danabasoglu et al. (2011 ; see also Bates et al. 2012 ). It has a nominal horizontal resolution of 1°, with 60 vertical levels ranging in thickness from 10 m (in the

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M. Y. Markina, J. H. P. Studholme, and S. K. Gulev

to have confidence in these diverse projections ( Hemer et al. 2013 ; Fan et al. 2014 ; Khon et al. 2014 ). Differences in wave climate in the tropics and middle and high latitudes are associated with the differences in dominant atmospheric circulations. In the tropics, summer wave heights are strongly impacted by changes in the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones (e.g., Teague et al. 2007 ; Phibbs and Toumi 2014 ). These cyclones are generally expected to become relatively sparser

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Momme C. Hell, Bruce D. Cornuelle, Sarah T. Gille, and Nicholas J. Lutsko

x PDF show regular seasonal cycles with some noise ( Fig. 6d ). They also have some power on the semiannual scale ( Fig. 7a , dashed blue and dashed red line), which might be related to imperfect reconstruction of the semiannual cycle due to noise and/or the nonlinear dependence on the first mode (see the supplemental material). These seasonal cycles capture variability that is similar to a variance measure (EOF2 in Figs. 6a,b ), which implies that the seasonal atmospheric circulation is

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Yalin Fan, Shian-Jiann Lin, Isaac M. Held, Zhitao Yu, and Hendrik L. Tolman

. Hasselmann , S. Hasselmann , and P. A. E. M. Janssen , 1994 : Dynamics and Modeling of Ocean Waves . Cambridge University Press, 520 pp . Large , W. G. , and S. Pond , 1981 : Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 11 , 324 – 336 . Li , M. , and C. Garrett , 1997 : Mixed-layer deepening due to Langmuir circulation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 121 – 132 . Lin , S.-J. , 2004 : A “vertically Lagrangian” finite-volume dynamical core

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Li Xu, Qing Zhu, William J. Riley, Yang Chen, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, and James T. Randerson

, which, in turn, may reduce convection and precipitation ( Ackerman et al. 2000 ; Andreae and Rosenfeld 2008 ). In the southern Amazon, fire-emitted aerosols have been found to drive increases in stratification, enhance the dry season circulation pattern, and lengthen the dry season ( Zhang et al. 2009 ). Hodnebrog et al. (2016) found that a main driver of the observed decline in dry season precipitation in Southern Hemisphere Africa originated from a positive trend in fire emissions. Baro et al

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