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Min Deng, Gerald G. Mace, Zhien Wang, J.-L. F. Li, and Yali Luo

that this result may not be exactly applicable to other datasets since the definition of lidar–radar regions depends on the sensitivities of instruments used in different projects. For the three-species ice-phase scheme in models, the cloud ice mass is generally contributed by the small particles, given the small size assumption of cloud ice. However, snow and graupel are not equivalent to the median and large modes in observations, respectively. Therefore, they need to be repartitioned with a

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G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, and O. Schrems

. The objective of the campaign and purpose of this study is twofold. First, the measurements enhance the dataset on occurrence frequencies of visible and subvisible cirrus clouds at midlatitude. Second, ground-based lidar observations of the tropo- and stratosphere are an integral part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) where they provide information on trace gas concentrations, temperature, aerosol content, and cloud occurrences. The high-quality level of the NDSC

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Kazuaki Yasunaga, Kunio Yoneyama, Hisayuki Kubota, Hajime Okamoto, Atsushi Shimizu, Hiroshi Kumagai, Masaki Katsumata, Nobuo Sugimoto, and Ichiro Matsui

the present section, the principal mission objectives were C-band weather Doppler radar observations, atmospheric sounding by radiosonde, surface meteorological measurement, conductivity–temperature–depth profiler castings to 500 m, and current measurement by acoustic Doppler current profiler. Additional tasks included turbulent flux measurement, solar radiation measurement, cloud profiling radar (SPIDER), lidar, and greenhouse gas measurement. The cloud profiling radar (SPIDER) has a frequency of

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Marcus Klingebiel, Virendra P. Ghate, Ann Kristin Naumann, Florian Ditas, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Konrad Kandler, Heike Konow, and Bjorn Stevens

-wind cloudiness in observations and models: The major cloud components and their variability . J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. , 7 , 600 – 616 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2014MS000390 . 10.1002/2014MS000390 O’Connor , E. J. , R. J. Hogan , and A. J. Illingworth , 2005 : Retrieving stratocumulus drizzle parameters using Doppler radar and lidar . J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 14 – 27 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM-2181.1 . 10.1175/JAM-2181.1 O’Connor , E. J. , A. J. Illingworth , I. M. Brooks , C. D

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S. H. Melfi and Stephen P. Palm

observations from several field programs conducted to study cloud streets. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 will present the plan of COWEX; section 3 will describe the airborne lidar system and its operation; in section 4 the lidar data will be presented and compared to the results of the Townsend (1965) study; section 5 will present the conceptual model and its implications; section 6 will compare the conceptual model estimates with several field campaign

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David B. Mechem, Yefim L. Kogan, and David M. Schultz

nonprecipitating stratocumulus. Cloud top ascended and descended over the next 4 h from 0600 to 1000 UTC. Radar estimates of cloud top are consistent with those obtained from soundings. Cloud bases obtained via micropulse lidar, however, were consistently overestimated (by over 100 m in one of the cases; Fig. 7a ). The lifting condensation level (LCL; dotted gray line in Fig. 7a ), calculated from surface observations of temperature and moisture, was lower than cloud-base estimates from sounding, lidar, or

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Dylan W. Reif, Howard B. Bluestein, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Zachary B. Wienhoff, and Manda B. Chasteen

: RaXPol Radar Data, cfRadial format, version 1.0. UCAR/NCAR–Earth Observing Laboratory, accessed 29 August 2018, https://doi.org/10.5065/D6VD6WV2 . 10.5065/D6VD6WV2 Bluestein , H. B. , J. B. Houser , M. M. French , J. C. Snyder , G. D. Emmitt , I. PopStefanija , C. Baldi , and R. T. Bluth , 2014 : Observations of the boundary layer near tornadoes and in supercells using a mobile, collocated, pulsed Doppler lidar and radar . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 31 , 302 – 325

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James A. Whiteway and Allan I. Carswell

3122 $OURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL. 51, No. 21Rayleigh Lidar Observations of Thermal Structure and Gravity Wave Activity in the High Arctic during a Stratospheric Warming JAMES A. WHITEWAY AND ALLAN I. CARSWELLInstitute for Space and Terrestrial Science and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada (Manuscript received 3 November 1993, in

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William P. Hooper and Jeffrey E. James

2 s and provided excellent spatial and temporal resolution. However, the GPS positions of the Truxton were only recorded every 15 min, and these positions had to be supplemented by visual observations made from the Glorita of the relative azimuth of the Truxton and its approximate range. Since the estimated positions of the Truxton on pass 4 are inaccurate, the data from this pass are not used in this paper. Figure 4 shows a false color image of the lidar data taken on pass 5 where the

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A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler

, apparatus and data evaluation are outlined in detail. In section 3 , the results are discussed. The observational findings are compared with results of several other lidar measurements; data taken with balloonborne optical particle counters at Laramie, Wyoming; airborne in situ and satellite observations [SAGE, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)]; and model calculations. A summary and concluding remarks are given in section 4 . 2. Apparatus and data evaluation The Raman lidar of the GKSS

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