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Joshua G. Gebauer, Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Petra Klein

to other no-boundary CI events. These three events were examined in the present study to determine the role of the LLJ in initiating the nocturnal CI. Unfortunately, the three CI events considered in this study occurred on nights during which there was either no PECAN intensive operation period (IOP) or the PECAN IOP was focused on a region away from the CI. Since the mobile platforms were not positioned to observe these CI episodes, the best available observations were provided by the fixed

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Matthew D. Flournoy and Michael C. Coniglio

did enhance the near-surface wind speeds and backed the winds to a more southerly direction. This added to the already substantial low-level vertical wind shear in the simulated environment that was oriented nearly parallel to the gust front ( Fig. 13 ), which is consistent with observations from velocity–azimuth display wind retrievals from a Doppler wind lidar obtained in the region ahead of the main system in the enhanced southerly winds. Fig . 13. Evolution of both observed and simulated low

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Manda B. Chasteen, Steven E. Koch, and David B. Parsons

associated with a northwesterly wind surge accompanying a surface cold front that had been reinforced by convective outflow. As shown in the RAP analysis, this cold front propagated southeastward with time in tandem with an upper-level short-wave trough embedded within northwesterly flow ( Figs. 3a,b ). Fig . 2. Surface observations from (a) ASOS locations overlaid with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-13 ( GOES-13 ) 10.7- μ m IR satellite imagery and (b) Oklahoma Mesonet locations

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and Ulrike Romatschke

, . 10.1175/JAS3307.1 Augustine , J. A. , and K. W. Howard , 1988 : Mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1985 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 685 – 701 ,<0685:MCCOTU>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0685:MCCOTU>2.0.CO;2 Banta , R. M. , 1984 : Daytime boundary-layer evolution over mountainous terrain. Part I: Observations of the dry circulations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 340 – 356 , https

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Hristo G. Chipilski, Xuguang Wang, and David B. Parsons

. 1991 ). Although the object-based algorithm already utilizes motion vector estimates for the purposes of object tracking (see discussion on in section 3b ), we propose an alternative method to estimate in the neighborhood of the user-defined reference point (i.e., ). Such a consideration takes into account the scarcity of bore observations and allows the algorithm to perform model verification only in regions where such data are readily available. To calculate , we consider the target

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