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Caroline M. Wainwright, Emily Black, and Richard P. Allan

et al. (2014) report that the response in wet and dry spell lengths is more pronounced and spatially consistent over the tropics than the extratropics. Polade et al. (2014) also identified an increasing dry day frequency, in particular over northern South America, Central America, southern Africa, and the Mediterranean—regions also identified by Pascale et al. (2016) as showing increases in the number of dry days. While Giorgi et al. (2014) and Giorgi et al. (2019) examined the mean wet

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Ioannis Sofokleous, Adriana Bruggeman, Silas Michaelides, Panos Hadjinicolaou, George Zittis, and Corrado Camera

, comprised of various combinations of physics parameterizations, and (v) to evaluate the performance of multiphysics simulations for different horizontal model resolutions. The numerical experiments cover a period of 8 months of the hydrometeorological year 2011–12. 2. Study area and observational datasets a. Study area and climate The simulations geographically focus on Cyprus, an island located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, approximately at latitude 35°N and longitude 33°E ( Fig. 1

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

surrounding the Mediterranean Sea shows unanimous consensus during summer, along with Mexico, large parts of southern Africa, South America, Australia (JJA), China (JJA), and central Asia (DJF). Table 7 shows that about 93% of the land in each season experiences a higher LCL. A narrow band of consensus lowering of the cloud base stretches from the Sahel across southern Arabia into the Indus and upper Ganges basins in JJA, as most models tend to bring the summer monsoon farther north in the RCP85

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W. M. De Kock, R. C. Blamey, and C. J. C. Reason

1. Introduction The south Western Cape of South Africa (see Fig. 1 ), like other Mediterranean climate regions (southwestern Western Australia, southeastern South Australia, southern Europe, Morocco, central Chile, and California) is mainly a winter rainfall region. Containing South Africa’s second-largest city of Cape Town, it occupies a small but highly economically and agriculturally productive part of the country, which apart from this region, is summer rainfall dominated. However

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A. Amengual, M. Borga, G. Ravazzani, and S. Crema

hydrograph. For instance, little is known on the scale dependency of the effects of storm motion to flood peaks. Small-to-medium, semiarid basins in Mediterranean Spain can suffer paroxysmal hydrological responses to convective precipitation systems during the extended hot and dry season. The relatively high Mediterranean Sea surface temperature warms and moistens low-level air which, together with the presence of upper-level cold air masses, enhance high lapse rates and convective instability. Deep

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M. Breil and G. Schädler

period is 1979–2015. The simulation results are evaluated for the period 1986–2015, so that a spinup of 7 years is performed for each simulation. The model domain is identical to the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment-European Domain (EURO-CORDEX; Jacob et al. 2014 ), comprising the whole European continent, the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, and the eastern part of the North Atlantic. The spatial horizontal resolution is 0.44°, resulting in 106 × 103 horizontal grid points. In the atmosphere 40

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Hector Macian-Sorribes, Ilias Pechlivanidis, Louise Crochemore, and Manuel Pulido-Velazquez

of the most important watercourses in eastern Spain, with a length of 497 km between the Iberian Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. Its basin covers an area of 22 260 km 2 mainly located in the regions of Castilla–La Mancha and Comunitat Valenciana ( Fig. 1 ), with the Cabriel, Magro, and Albaida Rivers being its main tributaries. Its precipitation pattern is Mediterranean (high rainfall in autumn and very little precipitation during summer), ranging between 309 and 717 mm yr −1 (with an

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Fredrik Boberg, Jens H. Christensen, and Peter Berg

Danish Meteorological Institute ( Christensen et al. 2006 ). Details on the current version of HIRHAM5 can be found in Lucas-Picher et al. (2011) . The driving field providing initial and lateral boundary conditions is ERA-Interim (hereafter ERA-I; Dee et al. 2011 ), available at a resolution of T255 (~0.7° or ~80 km). The zonal and meridional wind components, atmospheric temperature, specific humidity, and surface pressure are introduced to the RCM at 6-h intervals as LBCs of the model. Sea

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Dimitrios Stampoulis, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos

. 2008 ). The elevation gradient is relatively weaker than the two northern Italy study areas (from sea level to 1700 m over roughly 70 km). The main Cevennes river basins are Virdourle, Ardeche, Ceze, and Gard and are characterized by a typical Mediterranean hydrological regime with very low levels of water in the summers and floods occurring mainly during fall ( Younis et al. 2008 ). The four storm events selected for this study occurred in the Gard basin. The first event was on 29 September 2007

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Shida Gao, Pan Liu, and Upmanu Lall

transport links evaporation from the ocean and land (including moisture recycling mechanisms) to precipitation over the continents ( Gershunov et al. 2017 , 2019 ). What is the nature of covariability between the leading spatiotemporal modes of seasonal sea surface temperature (SST), the seasonal IVT, and the seasonal precipitation for the Northern Hemisphere (NH)? How well can the leading spatial modes of seasonal precipitation be reconstructed from the leading modes of IVT and SST for the same season

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