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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

. Clough , J. C. Liljegren , E. E. Clothiaux , K. Cady-Pereira , and K. L. Gaustad , 2007b : Retrieving liquid water path and precipitable water vapor from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) microwave radiometers . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 45 , 3680 – 3690 , doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2007.903703 . Turner , D. D. , and Coauthors , 2012a : Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions . Geophys. Res. Lett

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

.g., Patton et al. 2011 ), but still the number of sensors has practical limitations. One approach to obtaining concurrent observations along extended paths is to use remote sensing techniques, which includes both active remote sensing such as radars, lidars, sonic detection and ranging (sodars), acoustic tomography, and scintillometers and passive techniques such as microwave radiometry and spectroscopy. Boundary layer height is another important PBL property that lends itself to remote sensing (e

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

the cloud thermodynamical processes. The profiles of measured liquid water path (LWP), T , and RH indicate possible thermodynamical processes and can be used for validations of models and radar-based precipitation estimates. Here, the use of microwave radiometers (MWR), radars, and satellite observations to better predict snow precipitation rates are briefly summarized. 1) PMWR for atmosphere and particle phase A Radiometrics Corporation Profiling Microwave Radiometric (PMWR) provides continuous

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

-lobe leakage, presence of birds, and other interference on wind profilers. A QME concept was developed at the beginning of the program to compare multiple data streams against a set of expected outcomes of the comparison, including experimental hypothesis. The multiple data streams that served as QME input included direct observations from instruments, measurements derived from multiple instrument observations and the subsequent application of algorithms to them, and model output. The idea behind this

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

vapor from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) microwave radiometers . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 45 , 3680 – 3690 , doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2007.903703 . Turner , D. D. , E. J. Mlawer , and H. E. Revercomb , 2016 : Water vapor observations in the ARM Program . The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years, Meteor. Monogr. , No. 57, Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0025.1 . Twomey , S. , 1977 : Influence of pollution on

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

produced with the amplitude determined by Ps. c. The TRAIN algorithm The TRAIN heating algorithm is designed specifically for application with TMI passive microwave (PMW) radiance observations. First, precipitation and heating profiles are derived from PR reflectivity profiles, using a method similar to that of Shige et al. (2004) , over a one-month span of PR observations. In this method, month-long CRM (i.e., GCE) simulations of precipitation/heating during SCSMEX (18 May–17 June 1998), TOGA COARE

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

infrared and microwave approach . J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D15204 , doi: 10.1029/2007JD008530 . Turner , D. D. , E. J. Mlawer , and H. E. Revercomb , 2016 : Water vapor observations in the ARM Program. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years , Meteor. Monogr ., No. 57, Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0025.1 . Uttal , T. , and Coauthors , 2002 : Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 255 – 275

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

measurements or, in some cases, instruments for some required observations did not exist (or existed only in some relatively primitive state). The ARM-related histories of specific instruments (e.g., microwave radiometers, infrared interferometers, Raman lidar, and cloud radars) are discussed elsewhere in this monograph; here we comment only on the broad ARM approach. Early on, the ARM management recognized the need to have instrument experts available to the program and devised the idea of instrument

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

scattering), and thus the signal-to-noise ratio hampered many atmospheric studies using this technique. The stringent requirements of frequency control on the online wavelength made the laser transmitters in DIAL systems extremely complicated, and hindered their development. It was not until the late 1980s, when higher-power and better-quality lasers were developed as well as greatly improved detection technologies, that the atmospheric Raman lidar and DIAL observations regained the “luster” they had in

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

microwave wavelengths. These emissions can be used to infer the temperature and moisture content of the broad atmospheric layers from which they originate using emission weighting functions. Profiles of atmospheric temperature and water vapor amounts from across the globe are provided by spaceborne observations for numerical weather prediction. These profiles are especially valuable in the polar regions, where the network of rawinsonde stations has large gaps over the polar oceans and even over land

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