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Jeffrey B. Basara and Todd M. Crawford

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an important contributor in the exchange of mass and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. Bare soil evaporation directly influences the partitioning of available energy at the surface into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Additionally, the available water contained in the soil provides sustenance for the vegetation. In turn, vegetation contributes to the exchange of mass and energy through transpiration and CO 2 exchange and by modifying the

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Pierre Durand, Gabriel Abadie, and Aimé Druilhet

970 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 12Turbulent Moisture Measurements aboard Instrumented Aircraft w~th a Capacitive Sensor PIERRE DURANDLaboratoire dSl~rologie, (UR/I CNRS 354) Universit~ Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France GABRIEL ABADIECNRM, M~tdo-France, Toulouse, France AIMI~ DRUILHETLaboratoire dgl~rologie, ( URA CNRS 354) Universit~ Paul Sabatier

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Skylar S. Williams, Timothy J. Wagner, and Ralph A. Petersen

, airlines do not achieve an immediate operational benefit from adding moisture observations to their existing sensor suites. Therefore, only planes that are specially equipped with moisture sensors can monitor moisture conditions; approximately 150 aircraft, mainly in the United States, are capable of providing moisture data ( Petersen 2016 ). The second and current generation of the Water Vapor Sensing System (WVSS) uses a laser diode that directly measures the water vapor mixing ratio by counting the

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Andreas Schäfler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Christoph Kiemle, Stephan Rahm, and Martin Wirth

fields, the authors identified the inaccurate representation of diabatic effects in the IFS as a possible cause of an inaccurate cyclone forecast. An extratropical cyclone very efficiently transports moisture upward ahead of the cold front. The associated diabatic heating can, in turn, generate an upper-level negative potential vorticity (PV) anomaly, which considerably influences the large-scale dynamics and, subsequently, the precipitation distribution ( Massacand et al. 2001 ). Despite all of the

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Eun-Han Kwon, B. J. Sohn, William L. Smith, and Jun Li

.7–15.5 μ m, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm −1 ( Blumstein et al. 2004 ). Observed hyperspectral measurements are routinely used to produce atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles over both the land and the ocean, with a very high vertical resolution, by applying various retrieval algorithms ( Li et al. 2000 ; Aires et al. 2002 ; Goldberg et al. 2003 ; Susskind et al. 2003 ; Carissimo et al. 2005 ; Smith et al. 2005 ; Liu et al. 2009 ). The retrieved high-resolution atmospheric

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G. Scialom and Y. Lemaître

1. Introduction Convective systems of tropical or midlatitudes are thermodynamic machines in which heat and moisture, first concentrated in the lower atmospheric layers, are progressively transported to higher altitudes during the system evolution. With variable efficiency these systems transform the convective available potential energy into kinetic energy. This transformation is operated in particular by means of (i) latent heat through microphysical mechanisms, which lead to cloud and

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Maia S. Tatarskata, Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii, Valerian I. Tatarskii, and Ed R. Westwater

APRIL I994 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 599Quality Control of Ground-Based Radiometric Observal~o~s of llntegrated Moisture Using Surface Meteorological Observations1V~AIA S. TATARSKAIA, VIATCHESLAV V. TATARSKII, AND VALERIAN [. TATARSKII CIRES/NOAA, Boulder, Colorado ED R. WESTWATERNOAA /ERL / Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado25 January 1993 and 15 July 1993

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B. B. Stankov, E. R. Westwater, and E. E. Gossard

DECEMBER 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1285Use of Wind Profiler Estimates of Significant Moisture Gradients to Improve Humidity Profile Retrieval B. B. STANKOVEnvironmental Technology Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, ColoradoE. R. WESTWATER AND E. E. GOSSARDC1RES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado12 February 1996 and final form 22 April 1996ABSTRACT A method is

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Nicholas A. Gasperoni, Ming Xue, Robert D. Palmer, and Jidong Gao

1. Introduction One of the most important variables related to convective-scale forecasting is the near-surface moisture field. The timing and location of convective initiation (CI) is often highly sensitive to moisture within the boundary layer (BL). Variations as small as 1 g kg −1 in specific humidity, which are typical of boundary layer moisture ( Weckwerth et al. 1996 ), can make the difference in whether or not storm initiation occurs. Xue and Martin (2006a , b ) performed a high

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P. Ducharme, A. Houdayer, Y. Choquette, B. Kapfer, and J. P. Martin

1. Introduction For decades now, scientists have estimated SWE and, to some extent, soil moisture content ( M ) by measuring the attenuation of natural soil gamma radiation through the snowpack ( Carroll and Schaake 1983 ; Maxson et al. 1996 ; Grasty 1982 ). Airborne surveys of SWE are routinely conducted by NOAA’s National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center using this technique. The basic concepts and data analysis algorithms used are described in detail by Fritzsche (1982

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