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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

juxtaposition with the life cycle of the storm over North America during 7–10 November 1948. Palmén (1951) presented three-dimensional manual analyses from observational data including fronts, providing evidence for “the role of extratropical disturbances as links in the general atmospheric circulation as cells for the meridional exchange of air masses” (p. 599). The problem of cyclone development in early efforts of numerical forecasting was also referred to by Eady (1951) and Charney (1951) . Finally

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

that were crucial in the theories of Stommel and Munk. Stommel (1957) argued that the Scotia Island Arc could act as a porous meridional barrier permitting the ACC to pass though, but be deflected north to join the meridional Falkland Current along the South American continent. Gill (1968) pointed out that the zonal ACC current could also result from a balance between the surface wind stress and bottom friction, without any need of meridional boundaries. However, he considered only models with

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

flooding rainfall along the west coast of North America. The result was installation of a permanent tropical Pacific observing system as part of the TOGA project, including moored buoys, XBTs, surface drifters, and sea level gauges [ McPhaden et al. (1998) and section 7 ], to ensure that the surprise arrival of El Niño would not be repeated. Another important milestone during this period was the WOCE of 1991–97, which obtained a single global survey of ocean properties and many repeating transects

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Kerry Emanuel

1. Introduction By the time that the American Meteorological Society (AMS) was founded in 1919, mariners, engineers, and scientists had made great strides in characterizing the climatology of tropical cyclones, including their favored formation regions, tracks, seasonal variability, and surface wind field. By the middle of the nineteenth century, these characteristics had been compiled into a number of treatises, most notably by Sir Henry Piddington, whose 1848 work The Sailor’s Horn-Book for

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

troposphere can be found around the eastern coast of Africa (40°–60°E), the western coast of America (130°–80°W), and the central Atlantic Ocean (30°W–10°E). Moreover, the negative values cover Africa, America, and a broad region from the central Indian Ocean to the eastern Pacific Ocean. In the intraseasonal and synoptic period ranges ( Figs. 8-7b and 8-7c ), both distributions of SG are quite similar to Fig. 8-7a but overall SG in the intraseasonal time scale is stronger than that in the synoptic time

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

of the Yangtze River. However, the formation mechanism is still unclear. Tian and Yasunari (1998) proposed a mechanism of time lag in the spring warming between land and sea to explain the formation of the PRES. However, a recent study of Wan and Wu (2007) shows that such a heating time-lag mechanism also exists between Mexico and the western North Atlantic in the same period, but there is no PRES in North America. It turns out that the time-lag mechanism is a necessary condition but not

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

Laboratory (LANL)] as its Operations Manager, and Kim Nitschke (LANL) as its Chief Operations Engineer. A formal design review meeting for AMF1 was held at the headquarters of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in 2004 and attendees included Department of Energy (DOE) ARM operations staff (Doug Sisterson and Larry Jones), members of the ARM management team (Tom Ackerman and Jimmy Voyles), the AMF1 Site Scientist (Mark Miller), and external reviewers (Steve Rutledge and Mark Ivey). The AMF1 was

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

high pressure system in the world ( Ding 1994 ). In the equatorial region, the deep convection around the Maritime Continent is the most vigorous and extensive large-scale convection system, and its effects reach far beyond the Asian monsoon region and can impact weather in North America ( Yanai and Tomita 1998 ; Yang et al. 2002 ; Chan and Li 2004 ) and Europe ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Strong interaction between the midlatitude and tropical components through cold surges and convection feedback

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

produce the conditions under which the ice clouds disperse. In the following sections we discuss how ice fog is represented in current forecast and climate models. a. Ice fog forecasting A number of models are currently in use for operational forecasting of fog in general, but not for ice fog, specifically, although they could potentially configured to do so. These include the Canadian High Resolution Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS), North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM), and Weather

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

western North Pacific as the site for a tropical GARP field program, in agreement with recommendations of several other groups. In December 1969, Michio attended the GARP Joint Organizing Committee (JOC) planning meeting held in Miami for the First Tropical Experiment. At this critical moment in Professor Yanai’s research and international activity, student riots broke out at the University of Tokyo and lasted for a year. Radical students influenced by China’s Great Cultural Revolution and Berkeley

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