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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

1. Introduction Satellite observations suggest that thunderstorms in southeast South America are among the most intense and deepest in the world ( Zipser et al. 2006 ), are prolific hail producers ( Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Mezher et al. 2012 ; Bang and Cecil 2019 ; Bruick et al. 2019 ), and often are accompanied by extreme lightning activity and flooding (e.g., Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). In Argentina specifically, thunderstorm-generated hazards adversely impact a largely urban population

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

the future ( National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ). With a goal of improving the understanding of global severe convective storms, we are motivated by the following questions: To what extent do the meteorological and geographical ingredients for severe convective storms in intense convective hotspots, often patterned after storms in North America, translate across the globe? Are the hazards associated with archetypical storms and their environments (i.e., supercells

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

dryline is required. Some studies ( Owen 1966 ; Hoch and Markowski 2005 ; Schultz et al. 2007 ) use surface observations to manually detect drylines. Based on this approach they found that drylines are observed over the U.S. Great Plains on 32%–45% of the spring season days (April, May, and June). Duell and Van Den Broeke (2016) developed an objective algorithm to detect drylines in the Mississippi River valley (United States), where drylines are less frequent, using data from the North American

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

. , F. P. Brissette , and R. Arsenault , 2020 : Evaluation of the ERA5 reanalysis as a potential reference dataset for hydrological modeling over North-America . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 24 , 2527 – 2544 , https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-2527-2020 . 10.5194/hess-24-2527-2020 TRMM , 2011 : TRMM (TMPA) Rainfall Estimate L3 3 hour 0.25 degree × 0.25 degree V7 (TRMM_3B42). GES DISC, accessed 16 May 2020 , https://doi.org/10.5067/TRMM/TMPA/3H/7 . 10.5067/TRMM/TMPA/3H/7 Varlas , G. , and

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

initially favor supercells as the primary convective mode, may later favor a more rapid upscale transition into MCSs via cold pool amalgamation and/or surging outflows (e.g., Coniglio et al. 2010 ; Peters et al. 2017 ; and references therein). One region of the world that is susceptible to rapid upscale growth of deep moist convection is the northern half of Argentina, South America. The present study is focused along an approximately north–south mountain chain called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC) (e

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

1. Introduction a. Background North-central Argentina has long been recognized as home to some of the strongest thunderstorms on Earth ( Zipser et al. 2006 ; Liu et al. 2007 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ). In particular, Córdoba Province and surrounding regions frequently suffer from large hail and other forms of severe convective weather ( Mezher et al. 2012 ; Bruick et al. 2019 ). This region features unique topography that includes a small mountain range called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC

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James N. Marquis, Adam C. Varble, Paul Robinson, T. Connor Nelson, and Katja Friedrich

exceed 35 dB Z for more than 15 min, and thus remains below thresholds utilized by a companion study ( Nelson et al. 2021 ) to classify sustained CI processes. Longer-lived deep convection initiates approximately 60 km north of this cell, outside of the instrument array. Our third case occurred during the PECAN field experiment, which focused on understanding nocturnal CI over the U.S. central plains ( Weckwerth et al. 2019 ). During the evening of 3 July 2015, an informal CI mission was conducted

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