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D. Lynch, K. Smith, B. Blanton, R. Luettich, and F. Werner

stress) are to be applied directly, while remote or far-field baroclinic and barotropic motions are to be represented as boundary and/or initial conditions. Interior data are to be assimilated into the (local) forecast, causing appropriate adjustments to the least well known forcings. The target system is illustrated in Fig. 2 . The most reliable interior data, from an operational point of view, are the established water level time series measured at the National Ocean Service (NOS) stations along

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Scott D. Rudlosky, Michael J. Peterson, and Douglas T. Kahn

motivate the present study. This study evaluates the performance of the GLD360 relative to the TRMM LIS during 2012–14. A recent upgrade to the GLD360 motivated analysis of the operational GLD360 dataset alongside data that have been reprocessed using the upgraded algorithms ( Said and Murphy 2016 ). This analysis aims to characterize better the pre- and postupgrade GLD360 performance, to identify relationships between the ground- and space-based observations, and to provide forecasters with

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William E. Lewis, Eastwood Im, Simone Tanelli, Ziad Haddad, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Eric A. Smith

wind fields can be used to infer imminent structure changes, allowing corresponding adjustments to short-term TC forecasts. Other applications, both research oriented as well as operational, are possible, including the use of the NIS data as means of improving TC initialization in numerical models via data assimilation. It appears likely that the currently implemented retrieval method will work better for large TCs, with RMW roughly 2–3 times the instrument resolution. This highlights the larger

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Yinghao Chu, Hugo T. C. Pedro, Lukas Nonnenmacher, Rich H. Inman, Zhouyi Liao, and Carlos F. M. Coimbra

for horizons ranging from 30 min to several hours often use cloud information retrieved from satellite images ( Rossow and Schiffer 1991 ; Zhao and Di Girolamo 2006 ; Marquez et al. 2013a ). However, satellite images currently available [such as images from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite] have limited spatial and temporal resolutions that prevent their use for intrahour forecast ( Ghonima et al. 2012 ; Marquez and

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Kalpesh Patil, M. C. Deo, and M. Ravichandran

thus are suitable to model daily values. SST products with more high resolution are also available, for example, the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) dataset, which has a grid size of 1/20°. However, these data are observed at higher water depths and may not involve the diurnal variability of the SST and further their sample size is small. Such information represents foundation SST products and serves as boundary conditions for weather forecasting models. CCCma data

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Mathieu Hamon, Eric Greiner, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, and Elisabeth Remy

scales. It also addresses impacts on temperature and salinity findings in the water column. All results are summarized and the main conclusions are presented in section 6 . 2. Experimental setup a. Model In this study, we use the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) NEMO ( Madec et al. 2008 ) in a global 1/4°-resolution configuration. The OGCM configuration is identical to that used in Mercator Ocean’s operational forecasting system. More details on the model configuration can be found in

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Lohitzune Solabarrieta, Sergey Frolov, Mike Cook, Jeff Paduan, Anna Rubio, Manuel González, Julien Mader, and Guillaume Charria

performances of the forecast method used here are investigated, using a longer period of available HF radar data, in terms of the spatial and temporal distribution of Lagrangian distances between radar-derived and forecast trajectories. 2. Data and methods a. Data A main component of the Basque Country’s in situ operational oceanography observational network includes two long-range CODAR Ocean Sensors SeaSonde HF radar systems, owned by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque

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Graig Sutherland, Nancy Soontiens, Fraser Davidson, Gregory C. Smith, Natacha Bernier, Hauke Blanken, Douglas Schillinger, Guillaume Marcotte, Johannes Röhrs, Knut-Frode Dagestad, Kai H. Christensen, and Øyvind Breivik

resolution of 2.4 km and a vertical resolution at the surface of about 0.5–1 m. The wave model is a version of the MyWaveWAM model set up at a 4 km resolution with boundary conditions in the form of two-dimensional spectra from the operational ECMWF wave forecasts. The model resolves the wave spectrum with 36 logarithmically spaced frequencies from 0.0345 to 0.9702 Hz and 36 directions. The wind forcing for both the ocean and wave models are taken from the control member of MEPS, which has a native

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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

conditions and still have a large data impact if the location of the observation is in a dynamically sensitive region. The results illustrate the types of diagnostics that can be routinely obtained with the adjoint-based method in an operational context. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a brief description of the global HYCOM analysis/forecasting system. Section 3 outlines the data impact procedure, including a description of the limitations of the method as applied in this study

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Sean Waugh and Terry J. Schuur

location as the 1200 UTC OUN sounding and rose through actively falling precipitation. The project sounding is shown in Fig. 4 . Though the raw project sounding data were recorded with a time resolution of 1 s, thereby providing a much higher temporal and vertical resolution than is typically available in real time to operational forecasters, we first present the project sounding data using the same number of levels, including the same significant levels, which were available on the operational

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