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Young-Kwon Lim, Robin M. Kovach, Steven Pawson, and Guillaume Vernieres

.1029/95JC00382 . 10.1029/95JC00382 Kim , D. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Application of MJO simulation diagnostics to climate models . J. Climate , 22 , 6413 – 6436 , doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3063.1 . 10.1175/2009JCLI3063.1 Kim , H.-M. , P. J. Webster , V. E. Toma , and D. Kim , 2014 : Predictability and prediction skill of the MJO in two operational forecasting systems . J. Climate , 27 , 5364 – 5378 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00480.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00480.1 Kug , J.-S. , F.-F. Jin

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

quality of these fields has not encouraged the atmospheric ozone community to use them in scientific research. Typically, researchers prefer to utilize satellite and in situ ozone data along with assimilated meteorological variables. To our knowledge, the only comprehensively validated reanalysis ozone fields are those from two European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses: ERA-40 ( Dethof and Hólm 2004 ) and ERA-Interim ( Dragani 2011 ). On the other hand, a large body of

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Rolf H. Reichle, Q. Liu, Randal D. Koster, Clara S. Draper, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Gary S. Partyka

-generated precipitation, however, is corrected with precipitation observations before reaching the land surface. Observation-corrected precipitation was also used in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ; Meng et al. 2012 ) and in MERRA-Land ( Reichle et al. 2011 ; Reichle 2012 ). The latter is an offline, land-only reanalysis product. It provides significantly better land surface moisture storage dynamics than the original MERRA product because the MERRA-Land precipitation forcing was

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Gloria L. Manney and Michaela I. Hegglin

midlatitudes and a decrease north of 60°N, suggesting an equatorward shift of the polar jet. Archer and Caldeira (2008) used NCEP–NCAR and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalysis data to examine global trends in jet streams in a 2D view using a mass-weighted average throughout the upper troposphere; they showed evidence of a poleward and upward shift of polar jets in both hemispheres, as well as weakening jets—with the exception of the SH polar jet. Barton and Ellis

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Clara S. Draper, Rolf H. Reichle, and Randal D. Koster

MERRA to MERRA-Land). An additional reanalysis, ERA-Interim, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ( Dee et al. 2011 ), is included in the evaluation of the temporal behavior of the turbulent fluxes. In contrast to the NASA reanalyses, ERA-Interim includes a land surface updating scheme ( de Rosnay et al. 2014 ). Specifically, the soil moisture, soil temperature, and snow temperatures are updated to minimize errors in the forecast screen-level relative humidity and temperature

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Laura M. Hinkelman

intercomparison of clouds, precipitation, and radiation budgets in recent reanalyses using satellite-surface observations . Climate Dyn. , 46 , 2123 – 2144 , . 10.1007/s00382-015-2693-z Donlon , C. , M. Martin , J. Stark , J. Roberts-Jones , E. Fiedler , and W. Wimmer , 2012 : The Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) system . Remote Sens. Environ. , 116 , 140 – 158 , . 10

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