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E. W. Gill, M. L. Khandekar, R. K. Howell, and J. Walsh

, the buoy locationscoincided exactly with the grid locations. The four-digit numbersrefer to the fine-grid points of the wave model CSOWM.cation of a marine planetary boundary layer model, anda subjective kinematic analysis over a limited domainof the CSOWM grid where additional ship and buoywind data were available (see Khandekar et al. 1994).Thus, the wave heights generated by the model whendriven by MMM winds are expected to be closer to theactual sea-state conditions that prevailed during

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V. Sanil Kumar and T. Muhammed Naseef

) with in situ observations located in the nearshore environment. Orographic effects and bathymetry may be at play in this environment. Given this, one would expect to find the lowest confidence in the ERA-I data at the Puducherry site, where partial obstruction from southerly wave energy comes into play, as well as the potential for land–sea interaction with planetary boundary layer wind flow. As indicated, the model results from the onshore monsoonal flow are better depicted by ERA-I. Thus

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A. K. Steiner and G. Kirchengast

, with high vertical resolution (<1 km) and accuracy (e.g., temperature <1 K within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere), and under all weather conditions due to virtual insensitivity to clouds (see, e.g., the recent comprehensive study by Kursinski et al. (1997) , for detailed information on the technique). The sensitivity of radio occultation observations to vertical wave structures was demonstrated by analyses of nonterrestrial planetary radio occultation data acquired during

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Yury Vikhliaev, Paul Schopf, Tim DelSole, and Ben Kirtman

independent wind forcing. They found that the baroclinic response has a red spectrum with large amplitude at periods longer than Rossby wave transit time across the ocean. Jin (1997) and Qiu (2003) used a planetary wave approximation to study the ocean response to stochastic in time forcing with basin-scale zonal variation, and found that the response has a spectral peak at the frequency of the basin-scale Rossby wave. Cessi and Primeau (2001) showed that the linear quasigeostrophic formulation in a

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Lichuan Wu, David Sproson, Erik Sahlée, and Anna Rutgersson

the roughness length under young waves ( Doyle 2002 ). Taking the windstorm as an example, the increased roughness length leads to more energy transferred to the ocean from the atmosphere. Accordingly, the wave-induced stress enhances the decay of the storm, which is demonstrated in some studies ( Doyle 1995 , 2002 ). The feedback of the enhanced roughness length caused by wave-induced stress can also affect storm tracks, heat fluxes, the local planetary boundary layer, etc. ( Zhang and Perrie

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Lucy M. Bricheno, Albert Soret, Judith Wolf, Oriol Jorba, and Jose Maria Baldasano

1. Introduction Close to the coast the interaction between wind, waves, and tides becomes most complex but also most critical. Storms are particularly important at the coast as these events can lead to high waves, storm surges, inundation, and erosion in populated areas. The motivation for this paper is to explore ways of improving coastal surge and wave forecasting by improving the atmospheric forcing. Here, we specifically examine the issue of atmospheric model resolution. Storm surges are

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Qiang Li, David M. Farmer, Timothy F. Duda, and Steve Ramp

instrument that has the potential for effective measurement of nonlinear internal waves. The concept of inverted echo sounders was first developed by Rossby (1969) , who showed that the vertical round-trip travel time of an acoustic pulse allowed measurement of the variation of thermal stratification caused by internal tides. They have been deployed in many areas to study such diverse oceanic phenomena as planetary waves, mesoscale eddies, and large-scale circulation ( Watts et al. 2001 ). Here, we

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Jonathan D. Nash, Matthew H. Alford, and Eric Kunze

1. Introduction Energy flux F E = 〈 u ′ p ′〉 = c g E is a fundamental quantity in internal wave energetics to identify energy sources, wave propagation, and energy sinks. Internal wave radiation transports energy from the boundaries into the stratified ocean interior for turbulence and mixing ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ). Arguably, it is the piece that is missing from 1D boundary layer parameterizations (e.g., Mellor and Yamada 1982; Price et al. 1986 ; Large et al. 1994 ; Baumert and Peters

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L. M. Ivanov, C. A. Collins, and T. M. Margolina

. Geophys. , 34 , 385 – 412 . Landau, L. D. , and Lifshitz E. M. , 1976 : Mechanics . 3rd ed. Vol. 1, Butterworth-Heinemann, 224 pp . Laskar, J. , 1993 : Frequency analysis for multi-dimensional systems. Global dynamics and diffusion . Physica D , 67 , 257 – 281 . Lee, Y. , and Smith L. S. , 2007 : On the formation of geophysical and planetary zonal flows by near-resonance wave interactions . J. Fluid Mech. , 576 , 405 – 424 . Maximenko, N. A. , Melnichenko O. V. , Niiler P. P

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T. Hauf, U. Finke, J. Neisser, G. Bull, and J-G. Stangenberg

., 26, 211-218.Brown, R. A., 1980: Longitudinal instabilities and secondary flows in the planetary boundary layer: A review. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 18, 683-697.Bull, G., 1985: A study of statistical properties of atmospheric gravity waves. Z. Meteor., 35, 73-83.--, and J. Neisser, 1976: Hiiufigkeiten und Amplitudenvon atmosphiirischen Schwerewellen. Z. Meteor., 26, 205210.--, and K. Peuker, 1982: Einige Aspekte der Erzeugung, Aus breitung und Wirkung atmosph'firischer Schwerewellen

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