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Greg M. McFarquhar and Stewart G. Cober

in determining the energy budget of this region are determined from radiative transfer simulations performed using single-scattering properties calculated using in situ observations. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes microphysical data collected during FIRE-ACE, and section 3 describes techniques used to compute cloud single-scattering properties. Section 4 identifies the roles of water and ice for determining single-scattering properties of mixed

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Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, David A. Rutan, Tyler J. Thorsen, Norman G. Loeb, David R. Doelling, Xianglei Huang, William L. Smith, Wenying Su, and Seung-Hee Ham

process is shown in Fig. 1 . Ed4 synoptic 1° (SYN1deg)-Month ( Rutan et al. 2015 ) and Ed4 EBAF-TOA ( Loeb et al. 2018 ) are used as inputs for all-sky irradiances. In addition, SYN1deg-Hour is used for clear-sky irradiances. Clear-sky SYN1deg-Hour irradiances are computed by removing clouds and are provided every hour for all grid boxes. Ed4 SYN1deg-Month contains monthly TOA and surface irradiances at a 1° × 1° resolution computed by a radiative transfer model ( Fu and Liou 1993 ; Rose et al. 2013

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Ian A. MacKenzie, Simon F. B. Tett, and Anders V. Lindfors

addition to probing the validity of using climate models to correct diurnal biases in observational records, comparing simulations with observations also challenges model representations of the key physical processes contributing to the diurnal cycle in brightness temperature including radiative transfer and large-scale dynamics, and thus provides information on the more general model performance ( Yang and Slingo 2001 ). The Lindfors et al. (2011) dataset comprises a global monthly climatology of

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Howard W. Barker and John A. Davies

VOLUME2 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE MAY 1989Surface Albedo Estimates from Nimbus-7 ERB Data and a Two-Stream Approximation of the Radiative Transfer Equation HOWARD W. BARKER AND JOHN A. DAVIESDepartment of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received 6 April 1987, in final form 2 November 1988)ABSTRACT Solar zenith angle-dependent surface albedo is determined by

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Jonathan K. P. Shonk and Robin J. Hogan

to each model level. More recently, advanced cloud schemes have been developed that statistically simulate variation in cloud across model grid boxes. Both Tompkins (2002) and Bushell et al. (2003) propose methods to determine cloud fraction by prognosing the variance of water content. The challenge is to use this information in the radiation scheme. A gamma-weighted radiative transfer scheme was proposed by Barker (1996) , who weighted the optical depth across a grid box using a gamma

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Ryan J. Kramer, Brian J. Soden, and Angeline G. Pendergrass

the Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project ( Pincus et al. 2016 ), radiative forcing defined at the TOA has received increased attention in recent years. However, surface radiative forcing and its effects have been largely ignored, resulting in, and in large part reinforced by, a lack of quantitative diagnostics of ISRF. To the best of our knowledge, only Collins et al. (2006) have documented intermodel differences in ISRF, using offline double-call radiative transfer calculations to do

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David Medvigy and Claudie Beaulieu

conclusions in section 5 . 2. Datasets Our analysis used 24 yr (1984–2007) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiative flux (FD) and cloud products available on a 280-km equal-area grid ( Zhang et al. 2004 ). The FD estimates of the downward surface flux of total solar radiation were derived using ISCCP clouds and other meteorological data in conjunction with radiative transfer code ( Zhang et al. 2004 , 2007 ). The solar radiation estimates, obtained eight times daily, have

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P. Jonathan Gero and David D. Turner

and temperature (e.g., Feltz et al. 1998 ; Smith et al. 1999 ). Furthermore, optimal detection methods can be used to obtain longwave feedbacks of temperature, water vapor, and cloud ( Leroy et al. 2008a ; Huang et al. 2010 ). Infrared spectra can be generated from the state variable output of GCMs using radiative transfer models. This means that model performance can be effectively evaluated by comparing spectral infrared observations with spectra from the GCM output generated by a forward

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Pu Lin, David Paynter, Yi Ming, and V. Ramaswamy

). These radiative transfer calculations were, however, done in a relatively simplistic fashion, and the coupling between the species and circulation was largely neglected. In this paper, we seek a more complete understanding of the simulated warming trends at the TTL as GHGs increase. By analyzing the heat budget at the TTL, we disentangle the coupled radiative, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes and quantify the contribution from each process. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 2

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Zhonghai Jin and Moguo Sun

associated with the spectral change. A fingerprint describes the differential response of radiation to a change in a climate variable between two climate states. The fingerprints depend only on the radiative transfer algorithm and the unperturbed climate state. To use time–space averaged spectra to fingerprint climate change, the spectral changes ΔR must be sufficiently linear with changes in geophysical variables ΔX , so that the nonlinearity error is not going to corrupt the climate signal

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