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Thomas W. N. Haine, Renske Gelderloos, Miguel A. Jimenez-Urias, Ali H. Siddiqui, Gerard Lemson, Dimitri Medvedev, Alex Szalay, Ryan P. Abernathey, Mattia Almansi, and Christopher N. Hill

Overflow (DSO) flows south through this gap and is an important current for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and thus for the ocean’s role in North Atlantic climate. The two time series in Fig. 1a show DSO volume flux (transport). One time series is from in situ measurements, the other is from a high-resolution regional OGCM (and they have been processed similarly with similar smoothing). The question is this: Which is which? Figure 1b compares in situ hydrographic measurements along

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Luca Centurioni, András Horányi, Carla Cardinali, Etienne Charpentier, and Rick Lumpkin

, oceanographers are mostly concerned with studying the circulation and the dynamics of the ocean currents at global and regional scales, as well as gathering accurate in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data, while meteorologists are mainly interested in global in situ SLP data with particular attention in regions where observations are sparse. The SLP data from drifters are generally regarded as important for operational weather forecasting and for other oceanographic and severe weather forecast

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Elizabeth C. Kent, John J. Kennedy, Thomas M. Smith, Shoji Hirahara, Boyin Huang, Alexey Kaplan, David E. Parker, Christopher P. Atkinson, David I. Berry, Giulia Carella, Yoshikazu Fukuda, Masayoshi Ishii, Philip D. Jones, Finn Lindgren, Christopher J. Merchant, Simone Morak-Bozzo, Nick A. Rayner, Victor Venema, Souichiro Yasui, and Huai-Min Zhang

the ship. (bottom) Drifting buoys are expected to give the best-quality SST observations overall, but there are still several problems that may be encountered, including drift of the calibration over time. Solar radiation on the drifter body may cause errors, either through direct heating or through temperature effects on the electronics: the size of any effect will vary with buoy design. The depth of measurement may vary: the drogue is designed to keep the drifter sphere largely submerged; if the

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Linda Stalker Prokopy, Lois Wright Morton, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Amber Saylor Mase, and Adam K. Wilke

-D-12-00036.1 . Read , D. , A. Bostrom , M. G. Morgan , B. Fischhoff , and T. Smuts , 1994 : What do people know about global climate change? 2. Survey studies of educated laypeople . Risk Anal. , 14 , 971 – 982 , doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1994.tb00066.x . Romero-Lankao , P. , J. B. Smith , D. Davidson , N. Diffenbaugh , P. Kinney , P. Kirshen , P. Kovacs , and L. Villers Ruiz , 2014 : North America. Regional Aspects, Vol. 2, Climate Change 2014: Impacts

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Wendy S. Parker and Greg Lusk

. According to the inductive risk view, scientists should consider the likely consequences of these potential errors: underestimating high concentrations can be expected to result in insufficient traffic reduction and adverse human health effects, while overestimating concentrations can be expected to result in unnecessary traffic reduction and economic losses (see Fig. 1 ). If there is agreement that human health is the value to be prioritized, then underestimating concentrations would be particularly

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A. K. Pavlov, A. Meyer, A. Rösel, L. Cohen, J. King, P. Itkin, J. Negrel, S. Gerland, S. R. Hudson, P. A. Dodd, L. de Steur, S. Mathisen, N. Cobbing, and M. A. Granskog

14 days. Throughout the 3 years, the Twitter audience grew steadily, at a pace of 3–5 followers a week, and collaborative campaigns on that platform had little or no impact on the number of Twitter followers. The regional spread and demographics of @oceanseaicenpi followers is different for each social media account [ Fig. 3 ; Table ES1 ; more information can be found in the online supplement ( )]. On Instagram, a large fraction of our followers comes

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Simone M. S. Costa, Renato G. Negri, Nelson J. Ferreira, Timothy J. Schmit, Nelson Arai, Wagner Flauber, Juan Ceballos, Daniel Vila, Jurandir Rodrigues, Luiz A. Machado, Sérgio Pereira, Marcus Jorge Bottino, Raffi Agop Sismanoglu, and Pedro Langden

imagery is one the most important satellite data sources used by operational meteorologists in SA. Routinely they employ visible (VIS), IR, and WV GOES imagery to have an instantaneous glimpse of the atmosphere state, at least from a qualitative perspective, in order to monitor weather system development and displacement. On the other hand, the size of the South American continent, the lack of regional meteorological satellites, and the sparse coverage of ground weather stations and radar have

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Agus Santoso, Harry Hendon, Andrew Watkins, Scott Power, Dietmar Dommenget, Matthew H. England, Leela Frankcombe, Neil J. Holbrook, Ryan Holmes, Pandora Hope, Eun-Pa Lim, Jing-Jia Luo, Shayne McGregor, Sonja Neske, Hanh Nguyen, Acacia Pepler, Harun Rashid, Alex Sen Gupta, Andréa S. Taschetto, Guomin Wang, Esteban Abellán, Arnold Sullivan, Maurice F. Huguenin, Felicity Gamble, and Francois Delage

Many scientific challenges remain for managing the risk of future ENSO impacts in countries like Australia that are strongly affected by ENSO event diversity. MOTIVATION. The Australian context. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has long been recognized to strongly influence global and regional climate. Australian climate is particularly impacted by ENSO (e.g., McBride and Nicholls 1983 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 ; Power et al. 1998 ). The associated changes in circulation, rainfall

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Jason A. Otkin, Mark Svoboda, Eric D. Hunt, Trent W. Ford, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, and Jeffrey B. Basara

occurred. Because the proposed definition focuses on the intensification rate, it is necessary to use metrics depicting changes in some quantity over a period of time to identify a flash drought. It is also important to account for seasonal or regional climate characteristics that may make rapid decreases in soil moisture or some other quantity more or less likely to occur during certain times of the year. This could be accomplished in a variety of ways, such as simply requiring an index expressed as a

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Ronald E. Stewart, Julie M. Thériault, and William Henson

); and (d) the trajectory of the precipitation particles with the terminal velocities in (c). [Adapted from Thériault et al. (2012a) .] Effects of orography. Transition regions do not just occur over flat terrain; they also occur along sloped terrain. Snow at higher elevations and rain at lower ones is an inherent aspect of many winter storms (see Stoelinga et al. 2012 for a recent discussion). This region spans along-slope distances of order a few 10s to a few 100s of meters and is referred to by

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