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Hao He, Hailong Wang, Zhaoyong Guan, Haishan Chen, Qiang Fu, Muyin Wang, Xiquan Dong, Chunguang Cui, Likun Wang, Bin Wang, Gang Chen, Zhanqing Li, and Da-Lin Zhang

spatially and temporally. Thus, products from data assimilation and model simulations are the major tools to study changes in and over the ocean. Progress in ocean observation, data assimilation, and climate model simulations [including CMIPs, NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Numerical Simulations (LENS), and the high-resolution WRF regional climate model] were highlighted. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability based on LENs was discussed. Arctic sea ice

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Deborah J. Bathke, Holly R. Prendeville, Aaron Jacobs, Richard Heim, Rick Thoman, and Brian Fuchs

); allowing time for small group discussions related to the effects of drought and their interconnectedness to other aspects of human and natural systems; including a variety of viewpoints through diversity in demographics, cultural backgrounds, and interests (e.g., federal, state, and local agencies, Native communities, academia, and the private sector); and extending engagement beyond the meeting with continued feedback on developing regional drought metrics. FINDINGS. Drought awareness and education. A

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Andrew D. Gronewold and Vincent Fortin

Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER), and Environment Canada (EC) convened a workshop on Great Lakes hydrological modeling with an emphasis on improving regional hydrological and hydrodynamic science. Workshop presentations and discussions collectively underscored the following three motivating themes for current and future research: utilizing investments in monitoring infrastructure and model development from the recently completed International Upper Great Lakes Study

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Andreas Muhlbauer, Wojciech W. Grabowski, Szymon P. Malinowski, Thomas P. Ackerman, George H. Bryan, Zachary J. Lebo, Jason A. Milbrandt, Hugh Morrison, Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Sarah Tessendorf, Julie M. Thériault, and Greg Thompson

ice properties, ice initiation, and crystal growth in cloud microphysical parameterizations have led to improved simulations of the properties of mixed-phase and cold clouds, but uncertainties remain, especially with respect to the prediction of ice number concentrations and the effects of aerosol particles on ice formation. Regional climate models are approaching the cloud-permitting and cloud-resolving scale; this will open the way for new regional climate change applications and links to

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Chih-Pei Chang, Richard H. Johnson, Kyung-Ja Ha, Daehyun Kim, Gabriel Ngar-Cheung Lau, Bin Wang, Michael M. Bell, and Yali Luo

monsoon, some of the most intense convection and thunderstorms occur as a result of strong diurnal forcing during the build-up and break periods instead of the active period of the monsoon. Reviews of regional processes contributing to localized flooding include the diurnally driven circulations and topographic effects in a flash-flood thunderstorm over the Taipei basin, the regional- and synoptic-scale conditions associated with heavy precipitation systems over the Amazon and southern South America

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Stijn Hantson, Silvia Kloster, Michael Coughlan, Anne-Laure Daniau, Boris Vannière, Tim Brücher, Natalie Kehrwald, and Brian I. Magi

such as western North America and Indonesia in 2015 have made the issue of fire increasingly salient in both the public and scientific spheres. Biomass combustion rapidly transforms land cover, smoke pours into the atmosphere, radiative heat from fires initiates dramatic pyrocumulus clouds, and the repeated ecological and atmospheric effects of fire can even impact regional and global climate. Furthermore, fires have a significant impact on human health, livelihoods, and social and economic systems

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Xuhui Lee, Zhiqiu Gao, Chaolin Zhang, Fei Chen, Yinqiao Hu, Weimei Jiang, Shuhua Liu, Longhua Lu, Jielun Sun, Jiemin Wang, Zhihua Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Ming Zhao, and Mingyu Zhou

, the number and size of urban clusters will continue to grow. The symposium participants advocate investment in urban ABL studies, at levels that should rival those for priority area 2. Urban heat islands in urban amalgams are much stronger than in isolated cities. The clustering of cities may also generate measureable effects on regional weather. Intensive field campaigns, similar to the Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) and the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA

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Yi-Leng Chen, Pay-Liam Lin, Feng Hsiao, Pao-Shin Chu, and Mei-Huei Su

-MET). The only exception was the last paper which was on the dynamics of El Niño presented by Fei-Fei Jin (UHM-MET). The second day of the conference focused on two of the most profound disastrous weather phenomena over Taiwan: typhoons and mei-yu, which is the regional frontal system in late spring that brings in frequent heavy rainfall. These two phenomena also act as major water resources for the island. These papers were presented by researchers with the aim of transferring the research findings and

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Tsegaye Tadesse, Deborah Bathke, Nicole Wall, Jacob Petr, and Tonya Haigh

Africa is highly vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate change such as increased temperatures, reductions in precipitation, and increased climate variability. In many regions, such as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), the effects of these changes are compounded by rapid population growth, high poverty levels, dependence on rain-fed agriculture, and low adaptive capacity. Given the great uncertainty in climate projections for the GHA, early warning systems that are robust to evolving climate

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N. V. Koldunov, P. Kumar, R. Rasmussen, AL. Ramanathan, A. Nesje, M. Engelhardt, M. Tewari, A. Haensler, and D. Jacob

the water-related effects of changes in glacier mass balance and river runoff in western Himalayas. Given the research focus of the GLACINDIA project, the initial focus of the workshop was on glacier-related hydrological information. During stakeholder interactions the resulting discussion covered a much broader range of urgent climate change information needs for the Himalayan region. WORKSHOP FORMAT. In total, 30 stakeholders were invited to participate in the workshop. Among them, the minister

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