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Mathew A. Barlow and Michael K. Tippett

1. Introduction The rivers of semiarid central Asia have an important role in local water resources, providing drinking water, hydropower, and irrigation for both subsistence and large-scale agriculture. The region is water stressed (e.g., Oki and Kanae 2006 ), and drought can have severe societal influences (e.g., Agrawala et al. 2001 ; Barlow et al. 2006 ). The two major rivers of the region, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, are primary feeders of the Aral Sea. The rivers have their

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H. Biemans, R. W. A. Hutjes, P. Kabat, B. J. Strengers, D. Gerten, and S. Rost

. (2004) showed inconsistencies between runoff data and three precipitation datasets for three large Siberian rivers. Their analysis suggests a poor quality of either the runoff or precipitation datasets, or both. Pavelsky and Smith (2006) used discharge observations of 198 arctic rivers to assess the quality of four global precipitation sets and concluded that observational datasets cover the trends significantly better than two reanalysis products. At global scale, however, Voisin et al. (2008

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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

perfect records of reality, the ability of GCMs to modify their forcings make them a useful tool for connecting anthropogenic emissions and effects on precipitation and evaporation at large scales ( Déqué 2007 ). Although hydrological modules (precipitation, evaporation, land use) are also used within the GCMs, they are less reliable for analysis of surface and groundwater water balances in local river basins. The leading tools for these purposes are usually hydrological and agricultural models, used

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Thomas M. Hopson and Peter J. Webster

1. Introduction Accurate and timely forecasts of river flow have the potential of providing critical information for water resource management, agriculture practice optimization, and disaster mitigation. Nowhere is the need for such forecasts more urgent than in the Bangladesh delta that lies at the confluence of two of the largest river systems in the world: the Brahmaputra and the Ganges ( Fig. 1 ). Combined, these rivers can possess discharges of well over 100 000 m 3 s −1 . Once these

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Irena Ott, Doris Duethmann, Joachim Liebert, Peter Berg, Hendrik Feldmann, Juergen Ihringer, Harald Kunstmann, Bruno Merz, Gerd Schaedler, and Sven Wagner

especially flood discharges is important for the adaptation of existing and planning for future flood management. Whereas larger river systems in Europe and Germany have been widely studied (e.g., Kleinn et al. 2005 ; Dankers and Feyen 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2010 ), there is still a lack of information on climate change impacts on smaller rivers. Smaller catchments require higher spatial resolution of the driving atmospheric models, and with decreasing spatial extent the uncertainty of any climate

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Paul J. Neiman, Lawrence J. Schick, F. Martin Ralph, Mimi Hughes, and Gary A. Wick

distribution is modulated to first order by orographic forcing, as moisture-laden, landfalling Pacific storms encounter the region’s steep terrain (e.g., Colle et al. 2000 ; Minder et al. 2008 ). Given the combination of rugged topography and heavy cool-season rains, the river basins here are prone to quick runoff typically evolving on time scales of a few hours to roughly two days. Despite the abundant snowpack at higher elevations, western Washington does not often experience spring-melt flooding, as

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Ruud Hurkmans, Peter A. Troch, Remko Uijlenhoet, Paul Torfs, and Matej Durcik

1. Introduction Recently, the Colorado River basin (CRB) experienced a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in the hydroclimatic record ( Cook et al. 2004 ). Because of the temperature rise associated with climate change, similar drought episodes are predicted to occur more often ( Seager et al. 2007 ). For water management operations in the basin, understanding and predictive capacity of terrestrial water storage (TWS) dynamics and its associated hydrologic fluxes is crucial ( Troch

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Jacob C. Yde, and Gino Casassa

Bolivia (16°S; Soruco et al. 2015 ) have shown that glacier area shrinkage produced a reduction in river runoff. For the Patagonia Ice Fields, the maximum potential contribution to sea level rise is 14.7 ± 2.9 mm sea level equivalent ( Carrivick et al. 2016 ). Recent studies on the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields have highlighted post–Little Ice Age glacier area shrinkage on the order of 11%–14% for the period ~1870–2011 ( Davies and Glasser 2012 ; Falaschi et al. 2013 ; White and

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R. Alkama, B. Decharme, H. Douville, M. Becker, A. Cazenave, J. Sheffield, A. Voldoire, S. Tyteca, and P. Le Moigne

largest rivers, and climate at least on the regional scale ( Gedney et al. 2000 ; Douville et al. 2000a , b ; Molod et al. 2004 ; Lawrence and Slater 2007 ; Alkama et al. 2008 ). The simulation of these processes mainly depends on the representation of the continental part of the global hydrological cycle in continental hydrologic systems (CHSs). Today, CHSs are composed of land surface models (LSMs), which provide realistic lower boundary conditions of temperature and moisture in atmospheric

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B. Decharme, R. Alkama, H. Douville, M. Becker, and A. Cazenave

1. Introduction Continental hydrological systems (CHSs), composed of land surface models (LSMs) and river routing models (RRMs), provide lower boundary conditions on temperature and moisture in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and simulate river discharges over the entire globe. RRMs have been introduced into earth system models (ESMs) to convert the runoff simulated by LSMs into river discharge to transfer the continental freshwater into the oceans and then to close the global

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