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Florian Sévellec, Thierry Huck, Mahdi Ben Jelloul, Nicolas Grima, Jérôme Vialard, and Anthony Weaver

1. Introduction The ocean circulation is a slow component of the climate system and thus a major contributor to the system’s low-frequency variability. Moreover, global warming is likely to influence the oceans’ salinity distribution, and hence their dynamics, through the expected modification of the water cycle. Josey and Marsh (2005) have shown that an increase of the precipitation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre has modified the sea surface salinity since the mid-1970s. Modifications

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Xiaoyan Wei, Henk M. Schuttelaars, Megan E. Williams, Jennifer M. Brown, Peter D. Thorne, and Laurent O. Amoudry

a numerical width-averaged model, they further demonstrated significant variations of the relative importance of GC, and the direct and indirect ESCO circulation components along the Scheldt estuary. However, as longitudinal salinity gradients need to be prescribed in water-column and cross-sectional models and lateral processes are neglected in width-averaged models, the 3D interactions between ATT and salinity gradients remain poorly understood, as well as their influence on the gravitational

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Pedro Vélez-Belchí, Alonso Hernández-Guerra, Eugenio Fraile-Nuez, and Verónica Benítez-Barrios

salinity was principally due to the downward heave of isopycnals, whereas from 1981 to 1992 it was dominated by changes in water mass characteristics ( Bryden et al. 1996 ). The analyses of the 1992 and 2004 sections also indicated that upper-ocean changes dominate over deep ocean changes ( Parrilla et al. 1994 ; Cunningham and Alderson 2007 ). In addition to these five oceanographic sections, the global array of temperature–salinity free-drifting profiling floats, known as Argo, provides continuous

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D. Prandle

VOLUME 11 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OCTOBER 1981Salinity Intrusion in Estuaries D. PRANDLEInstitute of Oceanographic Sciences, Bidston Observatory, Merseyside, England L43 7RA(Manuscript received 17 February 1981, in final form 27 July 1981) ABSTRACT One dimensional time-averaged solutions are examined for salinity intrusion in estuaries with a breadthvariation Bt.(X/h)" and

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Frank Bryan and Scott Bachman

1. Introduction In each of the subtropical gyres of the global ocean there exists a distinct surface salinity maximum, with closed isohaline contours. They are an expression of the coupling of the ocean and atmosphere through the hydrologic cycle. The surface salinity maxima are located in the vicinity of regional extrema in net evaporation but are not exactly collocated with them. These surface features connect to equatorward- and westward-extending subsurface salinity maxima (typical core

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Xiaojun Yuan and Lynne D. Talley

1302 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUM-22Shallow Salinity Minima in the North Pacific XIAOJUN YUAN AND LYNNE D. TALLEYScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California(Manuscript received 28 November 1990, in final form 18 February 1992) CTD/STD data from 24 cruises in the North Pacific are studied for their vertical salinity structure andcompared to bottle observations. A

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Kyla Drushka, William E. Asher, Janet Sprintall, Sarah T. Gille, and Clifford Hoang

1. Introduction Salinity varies over a range of horizontal scales due to oceanic dynamics and surface forcing from river runoff, evaporation, precipitation, and freezing/thawing of ice. The primary focus of this paper is submesoscale (defined here as smaller than 20 km) horizontal surface salinity variability, which affects density variability and therefore ocean dynamics. Submesoscale density fronts are often associated with strong vertical velocities in the mixed layer and thus can drive

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Niklas Schneider, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, and Pearn P. Niiler

interannual to decadal variability of salinity in the California Current off southern California is investigated. The California Current system varies on multiple time scales and reflects mesoscale processes, seasonal forcing, and remote forcing. Variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level has been documented in a number of studies, and consistent relationships with local and remote forcing have been established. Changes of salinity, however, have received only intermittent attention, and

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C. E. Knowles

AvuL1974 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 275Salinity Determination from Use of CTD Sensors C. E. KNOWLESDept. of G~oscicnces, Nortl~ Carolina State University, Raleigh 2760710 August 1973 and 4 December 1973ABSTRACT To convert the specific conductance C(S,t,p) measured by an in situ CTD sensor to salinity in a mannerconsistent with the international standard expression proposed by Cox et al., it

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James C. Stephens and David P. Marshall

1. Introduction A tongue of warm and salty water known as the Mediterranean salinity tongue (MST) is the most prominent feature of the North Atlantic at middepths. It sets the temperature–salinity structure of a large part of the interior ocean in this region. Figure 1 shows salinity on potential density surfaces σ 1 = 31.85 (depth ∼ 600 m at the eastern boundary, the upper limit of the MST) and σ 1 = 32.35 (depth ∼ 1500 m). On σ 1 = 31.85 there is a pronounced northward as well as a

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