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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

-scale structure of dynamical variables (temperature, zonal winds, humidity, and vertical motion) derived from the sounding network ( Johnson and Ciesielski 2013 ; Ciesielski et al. 2014 ), the cloud population observed from the ground-based precipitation radars (e.g., Zuluaga and Houze 2013 ; Powell and Houze 2013 ), the air and sea processes regulating the atmosphere–ocean interaction ( Moum et al. 2013 ), and the budget of moist static energy in the northern sounding array ( Sobel et al. 2014 , hereafter

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

resolution than individual evolving storm components ( Yuter and Houze 1998 ). Compared to satellites, higher-resolution radars can be equipped on ocean-going research vessels ( Hudlow 1979 ; Short et al. 1997 ; Xu and Rutledge 2014 ), which can now measure dual-polarization quantities [the new CSU seafaring polarimetric (SEA-POL) 5-cm radar]. Dual-polarization radars can estimate rain rate R more accurately than can single-polarization radars because the former can constrain environmental controls

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE; Cheng and Houze 1979 ; Barnes and Seickman 1984 ; Szoke and Zipser 1986 ), the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; LeMone 1983 ; LeMone et al. 1998 ; Rickenbach and Rutledge 1998 , hereafter RR98 ), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment ( Johnson et al. 2005 ), the Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment ( Alexander and Young 1992 ), and experiments in northern Australia ( Keenan and Carbone 1992

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

1. Introduction The elusive understanding of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) continues to push the forefront of understanding tropical moist convection with regards to spatial- and temporal-scale interactions, air–sea feedbacks, teleconnections, and various other topics. This concentrated focus is driven by lack of a complete theory that explains the MJO initiation, growth, propagation, and spatial scale, as well as the failure of most general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately

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Ji-Eun Kim, Chidong Zhang, George N. Kiladis, and Peter Bechtold

high resolution without cumulus parameterization ( Miyakawa et al. 2014 ). A global model consisting of variable grids with regional refinement over the Indian Ocean has also been used, in which cumulus parameterization was used only outside the regional refinement domain ( Pilon et al. 2016 ). These models are constrained by observations only through the initial conditions and prescribed sea surface temperature, unless they are coupled ( Fu et al. 2015 ). Results from these global models are

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

boundary layer (not shown). We can note that this diurnal peak is present for all observations sites (land and sea) in the upper troposphere, as already observed between 11 and 17 km by Liu et al. (2014) over ocean. Based on these considerations, we treat our dataset as homogeneous and representative of open ocean above 1 km. c. Gravity wave activity A large number of studies use radiosonde observations in order to characterize internal GWs (e.g., Barat 1983 ; Fritts et al. 1988a ; Tsuda et al

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

China Sea, as well as a mean of many west Pacific warm pool events. A separation line between convective and stratiform rain was determined by BR09 using the Darwin, Australia, datasets. DSDs were considered convective (stratiform) if N w was greater (less) than a naturally emerging separator line: log 10 = −1.6 D 0 + 6.3. This partitioning method was found to be consistent with data from selected rain events in BR03 and with more data from Darwin by TH10 and Penide et al. (2013) . TH10

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Walter M. Hannah, Brian E. Mapes, and Gregory S. Elsaesser

. Zhang , and C. N. Long , 2013 : Tracking pulses of the Madden–Julian oscillation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1871 – 1891 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Zhang , C. , 2005 : Madden–Julian oscillation . Rev. Geophys. , 43 , RG2003 , doi: 10.1029/2004RG000158 . Zhang , C. , J

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H. Bellenger, K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, T. Nishizawa, K. Yasunaga, and R. Shirooka

of several projects, including CINDY2011, DYNAMO, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE), and the Littoral Air–Sea Process (LASP) experiment. The observed increase of moisture in the lower troposphere prior to the triggering of the convectively active phase of the MJO ( Johnson et al. 1999 ; Kemball-Cook and Weare 2001 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ; Thayer-Calder and Randall 2009 ; Riley et al. 2011 ; Cai et al. 2013 ) is one of the fundamental

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