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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

Peltier (1840) before him, was not only interested in the climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts, but also in explaining their formation. In his view, what became known as the “mechanical theory” was the only one capable of explaining the formation of these phenomena: “the temperature conditions are not considered the primary cause and the rotation the effect, but the rotation, whether produced mechanically or hydrodynamically, is believed to be the cause of the thermodynamic effects, the latter

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

, therefore, is a particularly important aspect of the models’ ability to make these forecasts accurately and for the right physical and dynamical reasons. Accurate representation of tropical cyclone clouds in numerical models is also important from a climate dynamics standpoint. Tropical cyclones have been at the center of discussions of global warming effects. Although the issue remains unresolved, tropical cyclones may increase in number and/or intensity as the earth warms. Since tropical cyclones are

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

the side effects of localization is imbalance; methods to control imbalance are the subject of section 5 . This issue is important because well-balanced initial conditions allow for more frequent analyses in high-resolution models. Issues specific to high-resolution EnKF systems, such as how to best use observations for modern radar systems, are reviewed in section 6 . An open question, of particular importance for operational centers, is whether EnKF systems can use satellite observations as

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