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Joshua Wurman
,
Karen Kosiba
,
Paul Robinson
, and
Tim Marshall

, H. B. , S. G. Gaddy , D. C. Dowell , A. L. Pazmany , J. C. Galloway , R. E. McIntosh , and H. Stein , 1997 : Doppler radar observations of substorm-scale vortices in a supercell . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 1046 – 1059 . Bluestein , H. B. , C. C. Weiss , and A. L. Pazmany , 2003 : Mobile Doppler radar observations of a tornado in a supercell near Bassett, Nebraska, on 5 June 1999. Part I: Tornadogenesis . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 131 , 2954 – 2967 . Bluestein , H. B. , C

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Anton Seimon
,
John T. Allen
,
Tracie A. Seimon
,
Skip J. Talbot
, and
David K. Hoadley

observations to address several as yet unexplained aspects of tornadoes and their parent thunderstorms. The temporal characteristics of continuously evolving processes such as storm dynamics, tornadogenesis, suction vortices, structural failures, debris loading, and lightning activity can all be better documented and understood through imaging systems with high frame rates. In radar studies, the aliasing between successive radar scans can make tracking of rapidly moving storm-scale features problematic

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Joshua Wurman
,
Karen Kosiba
,
Brian Pereira
,
Paul Robinson
,
Andrew Frambach
,
Alycia Gilliland
,
Trevor White
,
Josh Aikins
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Stephen Nesbitt
,
Maiana N. Hanshaw
, and
Jon Lutz

maps of tornadic storms, revealing secondary rear flank gust fronts, fields of vorticity, divergence, tilting of vorticity near tornadoes, and triggers for tornadogenesis (e.g., Wurman et al. 2007a,b; Marquis et al. 2008 ; Wurman et al. 2010; Marquis et al. 2012 ; Markowski et al. 2012a,b; Kosiba et al. 2013b ; Markowski et al. 2018a), and the first dual-Doppler vector winds resolving tornado structure (with RaXPoL) (Wurman et al. 2016). Quick, as well as semipermanent deployments were used to

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Joshua Wurman
,
Karen Kosiba
, and
Paul Robinson

, and P. F. Zhang , 2007b : Dual-Doppler and single-Doppler analysis of a tornadic storm undergoing mergers and repeated tornadogenesis . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 736 – 758 . Wurman , J. , Y. Richardson , C. Alexander , S. Weygandt , and P. F. Zhang , 2007c : Dual-Doppler analysis of winds and vorticity budget terms near a tornado . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 2392 – 2405 . Wurman , J. , P. Robinson , W. Lee , C. R. Alexander , and K. A. Kosiba , 2008 : Rapid

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Nicholas McCarthy
,
Hamish McGowan
,
Adrien Guyot
, and
Andrew Dowdy

-polarimetric Doppler radar at a resolution capable of resolving the storm-scale structures of wildfire plumes is demonstrated, including within the context of enhancing the predictive capacity of fire behavior. EXPERIMENTAL RATIONALE. The use of portable radar to investigate pyroconvection has gone almost entirely unexplored despite its extensive use during field campaigns studying thunderstorms and tornadogenesis in the United States ( Bluestein et al. 1995 ; Wurman et al. 1997 ; Bluestein 1999 ; Biggerstaff

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J. Brotzge
and
W. Donner

basis upon which to issue NWS tornado warnings. This is the eventual goal of “warn on forecast” ( Stensrud et al. 2009 ), where NWS tornado warnings may be issued based not only on detected tornadoes or observed precursors, but also on model output. Utilizing model output as the basis for some warnings could theoretically extend lead time to tornadogenesis. Significant advances in computer processing, the utilization of new types and greater numbers of real-time weather observations ( NRC 2009

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Susan C. van den Heever
,
Leah D. Grant
,
Sean W. Freeman
,
Peter J. Marinescu
,
Julie Barnum
,
Jennie Bukowski
,
Eleanor Casas
,
Aryeh J. Drager
,
Brody Fuchs
,
Gregory R. Herman
,
Stacey M. Hitchcock
,
Patrick C. Kennedy
,
Erik R. Nielsen
,
J. Minnie Park
,
Kristen Rasmussen
,
Muhammad Naufal Razin
,
Ryan Riesenberg
,
Emily Riley Dellaripa
,
Christopher J. Slocum
,
Benjamin A. Toms
, and
Adrian van den Heever

, 21 , 4132 – 4146 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2275.1 . Charba , J. , 1974 : Application of gravity current model to analysis of squall-line gust front . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 102 , 140 – 156 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1974)102<0140:AOGCMT>2.0.CO;2 . Coffer , B. E. , M. D. Parker , J. M. L. Dahl , L. J. Wicker , and A. J. Clark , 2017 : Volatility of tornadogenesis: An example of simulated nontorandic and tornadic supercells in VORTEX2 environments . Mon. Wea. Rev

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Someshwar Das
,
U. C. Mohanty
,
Ajit Tyagi
,
D. R. Sikka
,
P. V. Joseph
,
L. S. Rathore
,
Arjumand Habib
,
Saraju K. Baidya
,
Kinzang Sonam
, and
Abhijit Sarkar

and maintenance of daytime and nocturnal (stable boundary layer) thunderstorms? Other questions that might come from midlatitude storm experience would be the roles of shear, capping, low-level jets (if any), and studies of storm rotation; its impacts on cell motion (if any) and tornadogenesis and whether it is associated with supercells; and the predictability of hail or lightning occurrence. We shall also have to (i) characterize system morphology and evolution of severe thunderstorms, (ii

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Yihong Duan
,
Qilin Wan
,
Jian Huang
,
Kun Zhao
,
Hui Yu
,
Yuqing Wang
,
Dajun Zhao
,
Jianing Feng
,
Jie Tang
,
Peiyan Chen
,
Xiaoqin Lu
,
Yuan Wang
,
Jianyin Liang
,
Liguang Wu
,
Xiaopeng Cui
,
Jing Xu
, and
Pak-Wai Chan

miniature supercell was found to be similar to those in landfalling hurricanes in the United States. The long-existing miniature supercell was characterized by a hook echo, low-level low notches, an echo top below 10 km, and a small and shallow mesocyclone. As revealed by the dual-Doppler wind analysis, the mesocyclone, which formed an hour prior to tornadogenesis, intensified by the tilting of low-level horizontal vorticity to vertical vorticity and subsequent stretching by strong updraft ( Fig. 9

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Lanqiang Bai
,
Zhiyong Meng
,
Ling Huang
,
Lijun Yan
,
Zhaohui Li
,
Xuehu Mai
,
Yipeng Huang
,
Dan Yao
, and
Xi Wang

about 2.5 km to the north of camera 5. ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES. TC environment. When Typhoon Mujigae made landfall around 1.5 h before the genesis of the Foshan tornado, it was quite strong with the maximum wind speed of greater than 50 m s −1 ( Zhao et al. 2017 ), which was favorable for tornadogenesis according to McCaul (1991; showing a mean intensity of 47.1 m s −1 for hurricanes that produced more than eight tornadoes). Located ∼350 km northeast of the TC center, the Foshan tornado was spawned

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