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Mario Cools, Elke Moons, and Geert Wets

slippery roads on the other hand could increase the frequency of accidents. This example illustrates the long recognized proposition that road accidents and traffic intensities are the consequence of an interaction between behavioral, environmental, and technological factors. A change in any of these factors could prevent an accident from occurring ( Edwards 1996 ; Levine et al. 1995 ). The rise of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) provides transportation agencies the opportunity to implement

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Alan W. Black, Gabriele Villarini, and Thomas L. Mote

-related crash risk in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States by Qiu and Nixon (2008) found that rainfall led to a 31%–111% increase in overall automobile crash rate, with injury crash rates increasing by anywhere from 28% to 70%. A number of factors, both meteorological and nonmeteorological, contribute to the wide range of risk estimates found. Rainfall intensity ( Hambly et al. 2013 ), daily rainfall accumulation ( Eisenberg 2004 ), and time between rainfall events ( Eisenberg 2004 ) have all

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L. Bouilloud, E. Martin, F. Habets, A. Boone, P. Le Moigne, J. Livet, M. Marchetti, A. Foidart, L. Franchistéguy, S. Morel, J. Noilhan, and P. Pettré

network. This paper describes a system that uses only numerical weather forecasts as input to predict road surface conditions for the entire French road network. The initial road temperature and moisture profiles are provided by a long-term simulation of road conditions. The meteorological data are obtained through meteorological analysis that combines observations and weather models. In winter, ice and snow are major dangers for road users. Ice formation on the road remains a difficult problem to

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Thomas A. Guinn, Daniel J. Halperin, and Christopher G. Herbster

, 8000, and 12 000 ft. We chose these values both because of their relevance to GA flight (i.e., altitudes commonly used for nonlocal flights) and the availability of ERA5 data. For the estimated true altitude h obs , we used the 1400 UTC ERA5 geopotential height values for each of the corresponding three pressure levels. The 1400 UTC monthly mean D c values were calculated from (3) for each month for each year from 1981 to 2010 following the World Meteorological Organization (2017) guidelines

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Dana M. Tobin, Matthew R. Kumjian, and Alan W. Black

associated with winter weather by an order of magnitude ( Black and Mote 2015a ). There are different approaches to evaluate precipitation’s effect on vehicle-related crashes and fatalities. Several papers utilize both meteorological and vehicle-related crash databases to identify precipitation type at the time of the incident (e.g., Andrey et al. 2003 , and references therein; Eisenberg and Warner 2005 ; Andrey 2010 ; Andrey et al. 2013 ; references in Theofilatos and Yannis 2014 ; Black and Mote

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Virve Karsisto and Lauri Lovén

quality of mobile observations should be studied before using them for verification, postprocessing, or assimilation in a forecasting system. It should also be ensured that the forecast accuracy increases when the forecast utilizes the new data. This study presents verification results of road surface temperature forecasts that assimilate observations made with an optical Teconer RTS411 instrument ( Haavasoja et al. 2012 ). The next section describes the Finnish Meteorological Institute’s (FMI) road

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Virve Karsisto, Sander Tijm, and Pertti Nurmi

to slippery roads, increasing the number of accidents, which would become even more expensive for society. In addition to injuries, casualties, and damaged vehicles, traffic congestion can cause long delays in transportation. Winter tires are not commonly used in the Netherlands, causing trucks to get stuck in steep access and exit areas of highways and blocking them under icy conditions. Salting and plowing can be planned well ahead and thus the costs can be minimized by making use of accurate

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Matthew T. Morris, Jacob R. Carley, Edward Colón, Annette Gibbs, Manuel S. F. V. De Pondeca, and Steven Levine

, see De Pondeca et al. (2011) . The analysis system is run over domains that encompass the contiguous United States (hereafter, CONUS), Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Guam ( Fig. 1 ). The RTMA is used predominantly for situational awareness and provides analyses of 2-m temperature, 2-m specific humidity, 10-m wind, 10-m wind gust, surface pressure, ceiling, visibility, and cloud cover. The RTMA was developed in response to growing demands for the NWS to produce high-resolution meteorological

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Teddie L. Keller, Stanley B. Trier, William D. Hall, Robert D. Sharman, Mei Xu, and Yubao Liu

be used in new ways to alert of wintertime crosswind gustiness on other runways. Acknowledgments The authors thank Donald Eick from the National Transportation Safety Board for many useful discussions about the accident. Discussions with John Brown from NOAA were also very enlightening in regard to the meteorological conditions on that day. Comments from the reviewers were very helpful in improving the manuscript. This research is in response to requirements and funding by the Federal Aviation

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Stefan von Gruenigen, Saskia Willemse, and Thomas Frei

:// .] Freebairn, J. W. , and Zillmann J. W. , 2002 : Economic benefits of meteorological services . Meteor. Appl. , 9 , 33 – 44 , doi:10.1017/S1350482702001044 . Frei, T. , 2010 : Economic and social benefits of meteorology and climatology in Switzerland . Meteor. Appl. , 17 , 39 – 44 . Frei, T. , von Gruenigen S. , and Willemse S. , 2014 : Economic benefit of meteorology in the Swiss road transportation sector . Meteor. Appl. , doi:10.1002/met

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