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Jack Elston, Brian Argrow, Maciej Stachura, Doug Weibel, Dale Lawrence, and David Pope

), with the first documented effort made in 1970 ( Konrad et al. 1970 ). This aircraft made flights up to 3048 m and recorded dry-bulb temperature, wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity, pressure, airspeed, and vertical velocity of the aircraft. Since then many sUAS platforms have been employed to measure meteorological phenomena. Giebel et al. (2012) provides an overview of currently available sensors, and a few of the sUAS platforms that have been used by the Risø National Laboratory for

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Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Koji Osumi, Masayuki Ohi, and Yoshinori Yamada

1. Introduction Many authors have reported on the shrinkage of the extent of Arctic sea ice in recent decades (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ) based on satellite imagery. Since marine transportation through the Arctic Ocean has been made possible now, the development of techniques to detect sea ice floes and forecast their movement with high temporal and spatial resolution is essential for transportation in ice-covered seas. Traditionally, ship- and land-based radars only make use of radar

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Steven D. Campbell and Stephen H. Olson

symbolicreasoning on these features using a set of heuristic rules expressing meteorological knowledge about wind shearrecognition. Results are provided demonstrating the ability of the system to recognize microburst and gust frontwind shear events.1. Introduction Considerable attention has recently focused on theproblem of detecting low-altitude wind shear hazards.It is known that wind shear poses a substantial hazardto aircraft, particularly on take..offs and landings (National Academy of Sciences, 1983

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Kun-Peng Zang, Ling-Xi Zhou, and Ju-Ying Wang

al. 1992 , 1996 ; Bartlett et al. 2003 ). Such research has improved our understanding of the mixing ratio levels, transportation mechanisms, and reaction processes of greenhouse gases in the boundary layer of the Asia–Pacific region. The air–sea trace-gas exchange can affect the atmospheric content and cycling of chemical species related to climatic and environmental change. But to date, studies have excluded the impact of air–sea exchange. Generally, the ocean acts as a significant CO 2 sink

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J. L. Gaumet, J. C. Heinrich, M. Cluzeau, P. Pierrard, and J. Prieur

1. Introduction Aviation is affected by weather more than any other transportation system. Clouds, fog, and intense precipitation can modify the regularity of aircraft operations and potentially make aircraft landing dangerous. Visibility meters and cloud ceilometers are instruments that are now essential in airports and their technologies are constantly being improved. Until quite recently, airports of lesser importance in France were still equipped with flashlamp ceilometers that emit large

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Brenda C. Johnson and Edward A. Brandes

Observations. Academic Press, 458 pp.Fujita, T. T., 1979: Objectives, operation, and results of project NIMROD. Preprints, llth Conf Severe Local Storms, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 259-266.Geotis, S. G., 1975: Some measurements of the attenuation of 5-cm radiation in rain. Preprints, 16th Conf. Radar Meteorology, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 63-66.Hildebrand, P. H., 1978: Iterative correction for attenuation of 5 cm radar in rain. J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 508-514. , R. A. Oye and R. E. Carbone, 1981: X-band vs C

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Clemens Drüe

1. Introduction The Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) program of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was initiated to employ existing meteorological equipment and data links [Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)] on commercial jet aircraft to acquire upper-air measurements in real time ( WMO AMDAR Panel 2007 ). AMDAR data contain at least time, position, altitude, temperature, and wind speed and direction. A few aircraft additionally carry prototype

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J. Vivekanandan, G. Zhang, and M. K. Politovich

range from microns to over a millimeter in diameter, and various shapes of the distribution are possible. Studies have demonstrated that the most significant meteorological factors in icing are the LWC, static air temperature, and droplet size (e.g., Shin et al. 1991 ). Regions with LWC > 0.2 g m −3 and droplets with median volume diameters > 30 μ m were found by Politovich (1996) to cause especially rapid degradation of a University of Wyoming King Air flight. Supercooled large drops (SLDs

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William J. Shaw

774 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME5Inertial Drift Correction for Aircraft-Derived Wind Fields* WILLIAM J. SHAWDepartment of Meteorology, The Naval Postgraduate ~chool, Monterey, California(Manuscript received 25 January 19811, in final form 3 April 1958) During the last thee dlxadea, alrcra~ have assumed an increasingly important role as platforms for atmosphericmeasurement. Because of

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Dúsan S. Zrnić, Dale Sirmans, and Edwin Kessler

Requirements (NTR), 1984: Report by Depts. of Commerce, Defense and Transportation No. R400A-SP205, 225 pp.Smith, S. D., 1986: Use of storms for environmental wind profiling. Preprints, 23rd Conf on Radar Meteorology and Conf on Cloud Physics, Snowmass, Amer. Meteor. Soc. JP119-JP122.World Meteorological Organization, 1983: Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. WMO Rep. 8, CIMO Guide, Geneva. [ISBN-92-63-15008-4.]Zrnifi, D. S., S. D. Smith, A. Witt, R. M. Rabin and M

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