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Paul M. Markowski

equation written as where dw / dt is the vertical acceleration following a parcel, ∂ w /∂ t is the local vertical acceleration, v = ( u, υ, w ) is the three-dimensional velocity vector, − v  · ∇ w is the advection of vertical velocity, c p is the heat capacity, θ is the mean potential temperature, π is the perturbation Exner function, and B is the buoyancy which can be written as where θ ′ and q ′ υ are potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio fluctuations from the base

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Zhiyong Meng and Fuqing Zhang

ensemble (EnKF_m; solid red) to account for model error originating from physical parameterization schemes on the performance of a WRF-EnKF in comparison to a single-physics ensemble (EnKF_s; dashed red,), 3DVar (solid blue), and FNL_GFS (solid black) in terms of month-averaged RMSEs of 12-h forecast of (a) horizontal wind speed, (b) temperature, and (c) water vapor mixing ratio for the entire month of June 2003 [adapted from Meng and Zhang (2008b) ]. e. Sampling error, covariance inflation, and

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

deserves attention. Considering the important contribution of diabatic processes to the amplification of the downstream midlatitude RWP during ET, the increasing availability of water vapor in a changing climate suggests that an associated increase in latent heat release may strengthen impacts such as downstream ridge amplification. Research is needed to address this question and to explore how this extreme form of tropical–extratropical interaction could change with a changing climate. Acknowledgments

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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

Northwest windstorms at the time of maximum winds over western Washington. The 0900 UTC 15 Dec 2006 (a) infrared and (b) water vapor Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. Infrared imagery at (c) 1330 UTC 3 Mar 1999 and (d) 1800 UTC 20 Jan 1993. Fig . 23. Typical stages of a Northwest cyclone-based windstorm. Sea level isobars (hPa), 925 hPa temperatures (°C, shading), and 10-m winds (kt) are shown. Sea level isobar contour interval is 1 hPa. Table 1. Major windstorm times

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Dayton G. Vincent

and ridge lines are zig-zag; shaded areas in(b) and (c) represent SPCZ cloud band; for reference, crosses indicatecommon latitude-longitude locations (10-S, 180- and 20-S, 150-W)on each diagram.winds (i.e., beneath the trade-wind inversion), resultingin mass convergence. As a consequence, high-0e airaccumulates near the rising branch of the ITCZ wherethe convergence (primarily of water vapor) helps toconcentrate the location of deep convection and the accompanying latent heat release that occurs

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

the large vertical gradient of water vapor in the tropopause region implies large gradients in radiative cooling ( Zierl and Wirth 1997 ). Chagnon and Gray (2015) hypothesized that radiative processes thereby influence the propagation of Rossby waves even on the weather time scale. Based on idealized models, it was shown that a sharper waveguide is associated with a faster phase speed ( Harvey et al. 2016 ). More generally, longwave radiative cooling has been demonstrated to substantially modify

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