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Johannes Gemmrich and Adam Monahan

1. Introduction Surface waves on oceans and lakes play an important role in many aspects of physical oceanography, ocean engineering, and climate science. Waves enhance the air–water exchange processes of momentum, gases, and heat; generate turbulence in the near-surface layer; can pose risks to marine operations and structures; and are a source of renewable energy. Spectral wave models like Wavewatch III ( WAVEWATCH III Development Group 2016 ) or WAM routinely predict properties of surface

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Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

surface. For example, the velocity field is not required to vanish at the interface. The ocean surface responds with drift currents, surface waves, and turbulent eddies over a broad range of scales. There are other phenomena—such as bubble injection, spray ejection, rainfall, foam, and surfactants—which further affect the dynamics and complicate the problem. Consequently, one would expect the dynamics of such an interfacial layer to be significantly different from that over a solid flat surface under

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Benjamin Jaimes and Lynn K. Shay

-driven kinetic energy was available to increase vertical shears inside the cyclones (anticyclones) because the OML current response was stronger (weaker) and energy was barely (largely) radiated into the ocean’s interior. Consequently, contrasting OML cooling levels were measured along the storms’ tracks, suggesting an important nonlinear modulation of the near-inertial wave wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita by the geostrophic eddy field. Within the framework of linear theory a wake develops in the ocean

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Friederike Pollmann

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves constitute a crucial component of the ocean’s energy cascade from large to small scales and play an important role for ocean dynamics as the mixing induced by their breaking provides some of the energy required to maintain the overturning circulation ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ). The scale-bridging energy transfer is associated with nonlinear wave–wave interactions, which flux energy through the spectrum without changing its total

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Xiaoqian Zhang, David C. Smith IV, Steven F. DiMarco, and Robert D. Hetland

sea breeze) for inertial internal waves is the latitude at which the wave frequency matches the local Coriolis frequency leading to a change in character of the wave solution. As the inertial energy cascades into small-scale motions or produces local vertical shear, it can dissipate and contribute to the ocean mixing. In the coastal regions, the periodic sea breeze has been observed to drive significant near-inertial motions ( Zhang et al. 2009 ; Rosenfeld 1988 ; DiMarco et al. 2000 ; Simpson

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Maxim Nikurashin, Raffaele Ferrari, Nicolas Grisouard, and Kurt Polzin

1. Introduction Recent observations show that internal wave kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation are enhanced up to a kilometer above rough bottom topography in the Southern Ocean ( Polzin and Firing 1997 ; Naveira Garabato et al. 2004 ; Sloyan 2005 ; St. Laurent et al. 2012 ; Waterman et al. 2012 ). These observations suggest that enhanced turbulence is sustained by breaking internal waves generated when the strong bottom flows of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) impinge

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Dongliang Yuan and Hailong Liu

1999). The satellite data thus indicate anomalous tilting of the sea level, which suggests a thermocline dipole, associated with the SST dipole in the equatorial Indian Ocean. So far, detailed analyses of the dynamics that control sea level and thermocline depth variations during the IOD events have been lacking. Le Blanc and Boulanger (2001) used the altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon mission to study the long equatorial wave dynamics of the seasonal-to-interannual variations of the Indian

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Jim Thomson, Michael S. Schwendeman, Seth F. Zippel, Saeed Moghimi, Johannes Gemmrich, and W. Erick Rogers

1. Introduction Wave breaking at the ocean surface limits wave growth ( Melville 1994 ), enhances gas exchange ( Zappa et al. 2007 ), and generates turbulence that mixes the ocean surface layer ( Burchard et al. 2008 ; Kukulka and Brunner 2015 ). Previous observations of wave-breaking turbulence have shown strong enhancement near the surface, at values that far exceed those predicted by simple “law of the wall” boundary layer scaling ( Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Gemmrich and

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Frode Hoydalsvik

importance for the formation of half-wavelength sandbars on the sea bottom ( Herbich et al. 1965 ; Carter et al. 1973 ; Yu and Mei 2000 ). The physical mechanism of the recirculation cells in a nonrotating frame is well known (e.g., Rayleigh 1883; Longuet-Higgins 1953 ; Mei 1983). However, the details of the vertically varying mean particle velocity in a rotating frame is yet not fully clear. Traditionally, the theoretical investigation of the mean mass transport in long ocean waves affected by

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Dong Wang and Tobias Kukulka

1. Introduction Langmuir turbulence (LT) is an important turbulent process in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), which is driven by the Craik–Leibovich (CL) vortex force due to the wave–current interaction ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). The structure of LT features coherent vortex pairs, which generates strong surface convergent regions and downwelling jets that significantly enhance vertical mixing ( Thorpe 2004 ; Weller and Price 1988 ; Farmer and Li 1995 ). Previous studies have used

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