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Danahé Paquin-Ricard, Colin Jones, and Paul A. Vaillancourt

is that of Kain and Fritsch (1990 , 1993) , whereas a Kuo transient scheme is used for shallow convection ( Kuo 1965 ; Bélair et al. 2005 ). The radiation scheme is due to Li and Barker (2005) and employs a correlated k -distribution (CKD) method for gaseous transmission, with nine frequency intervals for longwave and four frequency intervals for shortwave radiation. Although the longwave spectrum and the near-infrared portion of the shortwave spectrum are treated using the CKD method, the

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absorption of the solar infra-red rays takes place chiefly. end these are therefore the layers whichare most warmed by tlie direct rays of the sun. I have noted elsewhere (Atmospheric Radiation, p. 123 ) that after rising above the comparatively thin layer of convectionally heated air, that portion of the diurnal rangeof temperature due to the immediate c t l ~~~r p t i o n of the solar rays may beexpected to increase up to nearly the limit of the aqueous atmosphere, and i t is surmised that this

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Thomas Auligné

eigenvalues, which are shown in Fig. 3 for various sets of AIRS channels and also for High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) channels. We note that AIRS longwave band, despite its 141 channels, does not bring much additional information about the cloud compared to HIRS channels. In contrast, the combination of longwave temperature channels with those sensitive to moisture provides significant improvement in the description of the cloud. Window and shortwave temperature channels are also

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the ice fogmay be made using the radiation differences of bothstations. Little is known about the absorption anddiffraction characteristics of infrared radiation in a cloudof ice crystals. Cirrostratus clouds would be the mostsuitable to compare with, but investigations of this typeof cloud are difficult. Under several simplifying thoughrather unreal assumptions, an estimate was made ofthe ice-fog depth, in this particular case yielding a meanvalue of 9 m.Benson (1965) quotes a vertical extent of

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Keith M. Hines and David H. Bromwich

, 569 – 585 . Chou , M-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 85 pp . Cooper , W. A. , 1986 : Ice initiation in natural clouds. Precipitation Enhancement—A Scientific Challenge, Meteor. Monogr., No. 21, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 29–32 . Dudhia , J. , 1993 : A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and

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Bruce A. Wielicki, J.T. Suttles, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Ronald M. Welch, James D. Spinhirne, Man-Li C. Wu, David O'C. Starr, Lindsay Parker, and Robert F. Arduini

reflectance in near-infrared windows such as those at 1.6um and 2.21 t~m should give lower reflectances thanat visible wavelengths (Pollack et al. 1978; Hansen andPollack 1970; Twomey 1971 ). The reason for this difference is that ice and liquid water show significantabsorption at these wavelengths, in contrast to thenearly conservative scattering at wavelengths shorterthan I tzm. In addition, because the amount of absorption scales with the path length of radiation throughthe particle, increasing cloud

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Laurent Sauvage, Pierre H. Flamant, Hélène Chepfer, Gérard Brogniez, Vincent Trouillet, Jacques Pelon, and Franck Albers

sets of Eppley cleardome pyranometers and an Eppley pyrgeometer looking upward and downward (see Tables 2 and 4 ). A Barnes precision radiation thermometer (PRT-5) looking upward was installed on board the ARAT to measure infrared radiance ( L ) in the 8–14- μ m spectral region within a 35-mrad field of view. It corresponds to a footprint of 100-m diameter at a 3-km range. All the radiometer data were recorded using a 1-Hz sampling frequency. Upward and downward effective beam emittances ε

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thelayering system in the model and to the difference betweenthe real temperature fields against a climatological meantemperature.3. THE TOTAL HEATING FIELDSThe components of the heating field were added to-gether and gave the total field due to the absorption ofsolar and terrestrial radiation at 10, 25, 50, and 100 mbover the chosen day period. The eddy heating fieldswere generated by the infrared transfer due to the strato-pheric absorption by the 9.6-micron band of ozone andby the 15-micron band of

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Thomas J. Greenwald, Rolf Hertenstein, and Tomislava Vukićević

. Murray , P. Minnis , and D. F. Young , 1999 : Visible clear-sky and near-infrared surface albedos derived from VIRS data for CERES. 10th Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, Madison, WI, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 422–429 . Tripoli , G. J. , 1986 : A numerical investigation of an orogenic mesoscale convective system. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Atmospheric Science Paper 401, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 290 pp . Tripoli , G. J. , and W. R. Cotton , 1982 : The Colorado State

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Man-Yau Chan, Jeffrey L. Anderson, and Xingchao Chen

distributions near zero, whereas the same quantity for cloudy members is drawn from distributions that are much wider and further from zero. Furthermore, because hydrometeors attenuate upwelling infrared and microwave radiation, satellite-sensed brightness temperatures vary depending on whether clouds are present ( Geer and Bauer 2011 ; Harnisch et al. 2016 ; Minamide and Zhang 2019 , 2017 ; Honda et al. 2018 ). In other words, the ensemble is drawn from multiple distributions, as opposed to a single

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