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Simon Schick, Ole Rössler, and Rolf Weingartner

1. Introduction Subseasonal and seasonal forecasts of environmental conditions are increasingly based on numerically coupled models of the various Earth system components. These include general circulation models of the atmosphere and oceans and dynamical land surface or sea ice models ( National Academies 2016 ). Such forecast systems represent diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes and continuously progress toward Earth system models (ESMs). However, not all environmental

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Cuan Petheram, Paul Rustomji, Tim R. McVicar, WenJu Cai, Francis H. S. Chiew, Jamie Vleeshouwer, Thomas G. Van Niel, LingTao Li, Richard G. Cresswell, Randall J. Donohue, Jin Teng, and Jean-Michel Perraud

Queensland (QLD), and encompasses Australia’s Timor Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, and the most northern section of the Northeast Coast drainage divisions ( Fig. 1 ), which is an area >1 250 000 km 2 . The NA landscape is generally of low relief by world standards (Bartle Frere is the highest peak at 1622 m), though outcropping bedrock ranges cause areas of regionally rugged topography. According to the updated Köppen–Geiger climate classification ( Peel et al. 2007 ), the study region is classified as being

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

) indicate the opposite. Figure 3a shows the difference in CORR of daily precipitation. Apart from few regions in the Sahara Desert, Mediterranean Sea, and other scattered spots over oceans, PDIR-Now shows a better CORR compared to PERSIANN-CCS. While the average increase in CORR over the entire global domain is only marginal (0.52–0.57; see Table 1 ), significant regional improvement is present specifically over eastern Asia. Precisely, CORR in daily precipitation improves from 0.44 to 0.54 over the

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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

implementing SURFEX is to gather all developments conducted in surface modeling at Météo-France for the generic surfaces units (soil–vegetation, urban areas, sea surface, and lakes) ( ). Besides, SURFEX yields the necessary interface between the atmospheric and hydrological modeling. The ISBA parameters, and the fraction of surface types, are mapped using the ECOCLIMAP database ( Masson et al. 2003 ), which includes a land cover classification in association with sets of

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Trent W. Ford and Justin T. Schoof

temperatures are more strongly tied to large-scale drivers, such as Pacific sea surface temperature variability ( Mo 2003 ; Alfaro et al. 2006 ). Given the documented response of summer to spring soil moisture anomalies in many regions of the world ( Guo et al. 2011 ; Quesada et al. 2012 ; Ford and Quiring 2014 ), it is reasonable to postulate whether these relationships exist in the Midwest region of the United States and if summer responds similarly to anomalously wet or dry spring soils. This

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

Mississippi basin mainly east of the Great Plains. This area also shows a major oceanic source from the Gulf of Mexico, but with more extent into the northern Caribbean Sea (see Dirmeyer and Kinter 2010 ) and little moisture coming from the west. There is again a substantial terrestrial source over the southern and central portions of the area. Figure 2 (top) also shows the evaporative source for the East Coast, which shows much more of a source from the open Atlantic than does the Mississippi basin

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Stefano Materia, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Zhichang Guo, Andrea Alessandri, and Antonio Navarra

provide estimates of soil moisture, water and energy balance components, and surface and subsurface variables by integrating uncoupled land surface schemes using meteorological forcings based on a combination of reanalysis and observations. GSWP-2 produced land surface water and energy cycle component estimates over the period 1986–95. The model simulations for GSWP-2 were conducted globally over land on a 1° × 1° regular grid, using the same land sea mask, over the 10-yr period mentioned above. Data

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Di Tian, Christopher J. Martinez, and Wendy D. Graham

, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature or relative humidity, which are often not available in many regions. Coupled ocean–land–atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) combine models for the ocean, atmosphere, land surface, and sea ice and run from several months to 1 year ahead to produce seasonal forecasts ( Troccoli 2010 ). CGCMs have been operationally implemented at major weather and climate forecast centers around the world ( Palmer et al. 2004 ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Yuan et al. 2011

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, and Witold F. Krajewski

basin have runoff ratios for the September 2004 flood that are in the 70%–100% range. b. April 2005 Extreme flooding in the Delaware River basin on 2 April 2005 was associated with an extratropical cyclone that tracked up the East Coast. The surface low was located along the Gulf Coast near New Orleans at 1200 UTC 1 April with a minimum sea level pressure of 1009.7 hPa; 12 h later, central pressure had decreased to 1001.1 hPa and the low was centered in the southern Appalachians (figure not shown

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Pouya Vahmani and Terri S. Hogue

covers approximately 1291 km 2 and is one of the most highly urbanized and least green cities in the country ( McPherson et al. 2008 ). The region has a Mediterranean climate, receiving on average around 38 cm (15 in.) of rainfall per year ( NOAA/CSC 2003 ). Large interannual variations in the region’s climate are driven by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, where the positive phase (El Niño) is typically associated with enhanced wintertime rainfall ( NOAA/CSC 2003 ). Offshore flows

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