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M. Verbunt, A. Walser, J. Gurtz, A. Montani, and C. Schär

15 November 2002. Ahead of a deep upper-level through, which stretched from Algeria to the North Sea, a strong southwesterly flow was established over the Alps ( Fig. 2b ). Pronounced damage associated with several major mudslides occurred in the Rhine/Domat-Ems basin in southeastern Switzerland (catchment 1 in Fig. 1 ). This catchment is located in an inner-Alpine valley and is protected to the south and partly to the north by mountain chains. Thus, the precipitation leading to the event was

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Cuan Petheram, Paul Rustomji, Tim R. McVicar, WenJu Cai, Francis H. S. Chiew, Jamie Vleeshouwer, Thomas G. Van Niel, LingTao Li, Richard G. Cresswell, Randall J. Donohue, Jin Teng, and Jean-Michel Perraud

Queensland (QLD), and encompasses Australia’s Timor Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, and the most northern section of the Northeast Coast drainage divisions ( Fig. 1 ), which is an area >1 250 000 km 2 . The NA landscape is generally of low relief by world standards (Bartle Frere is the highest peak at 1622 m), though outcropping bedrock ranges cause areas of regionally rugged topography. According to the updated Köppen–Geiger climate classification ( Peel et al. 2007 ), the study region is classified as being

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Ning Wang, Xin-Min Zeng, Yiqun Zheng, Jian Zhu, and Shanhu Jiang

),(d) July. The moisture sources (sinks) are denoted as the percentage of attributed precipitation (evaporation) to total precipitation (evaporation) by each grid cell. For the moisture sources of precipitation over China in January ( Fig. 3a ), the main sources are southwest and south China and the adjacent continental and oceanic areas, which are a zonal region from the Arabian Sea (ARS) to the South China Sea (SCS), north of 10°N, and other sources, such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and

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Simon Schick, Ole Rössler, and Rolf Weingartner

1. Introduction Subseasonal and seasonal forecasts of environmental conditions are increasingly based on numerically coupled models of the various Earth system components. These include general circulation models of the atmosphere and oceans and dynamical land surface or sea ice models ( National Academies 2016 ). Such forecast systems represent diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes and continuously progress toward Earth system models (ESMs). However, not all environmental

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

reaching ~40°C) whereas winters are cold and wet (minimum temperature may go down to about −20°C). While the southwestern upstream part shows a warmer and wetter Mediterranean character, the rest of the basin has a drier, continental climate, isolated from the moderating effect of the Mediterranean Sea by the Taurus Mountains in the south. The land cover in the basin shows a strong contrast between intensively irrigated agricultural lands and the sparsely vegetated steppe areas covering the mid- and

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Yafeng Zhang, Bin He, Lanlan Guo, and Daochen Liu

, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24398 . 10.1038/srep24398 Lorenzo-Lacruz , J. , C. Garcia , and E. Morán-Tejeda , 2017 : Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers . J. Hydrol. , 552 , 516 – 531 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.011 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.011 Menemenlis , D. , and Coauthors , 2008 : ECCO2: High resolution global ocean and sea ice data synthesis. AGU Fall Meeting , San Francisco, CA, Amer. Geophys. Union

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Tushar Apurv, Ximing Cai, and Xing Yuan

. Previous studies have shown that the meteorological drought frequency in the continental United States (CONUS) oscillates at the multidecadal time scale ( Gray et al. 2003 ), as a result of oscillations in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific Ocean ( McCabe and Dettinger 1999 ; Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ) and the North Atlantic Ocean ( Enfield et al. 2001 ). This is because the interdecadal variability of precipitation in the United States is modulated by the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO

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Bruce T. Anderson, Dan Gianotti, and Guido Salvucci

method requires a (approximately) continuously varying, normally distributed daily time series, which is appropriate for sea level pressure ( Madden 1976 ) and temperature ( Madden and Shea 1978 ), but not necessarily for daily precipitation (e.g., Zheng et al. 2000 ). Alternatively, some of these limitations can be overcome through various bootstrapping techniques (e.g., Feng et al. 2011 ). However, such techniques necessarily incorporate both stochastically generated variability and variability

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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

implementing SURFEX is to gather all developments conducted in surface modeling at Météo-France for the generic surfaces units (soil–vegetation, urban areas, sea surface, and lakes) ( http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/surfex/ ). Besides, SURFEX yields the necessary interface between the atmospheric and hydrological modeling. The ISBA parameters, and the fraction of surface types, are mapped using the ECOCLIMAP database ( Masson et al. 2003 ), which includes a land cover classification in association with sets of

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

) indicate the opposite. Figure 3a shows the difference in CORR of daily precipitation. Apart from few regions in the Sahara Desert, Mediterranean Sea, and other scattered spots over oceans, PDIR-Now shows a better CORR compared to PERSIANN-CCS. While the average increase in CORR over the entire global domain is only marginal (0.52–0.57; see Table 1 ), significant regional improvement is present specifically over eastern Asia. Precisely, CORR in daily precipitation improves from 0.44 to 0.54 over the

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