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Kinya Toride, Yoshihiko Iseri, Michael D. Warner, Chris D. Frans, Angela M. Duren, John F. England, and M. Levent Kavvas

transposition and moisture maximization methods by the previous numerical weather model-based PMP studies ( Ohara et al. 2011 ; Ishida et al. 2015a , b ). (b) Schematic diagram of the proposed PMP estimation framework. The main objective of the current study is to propose a new framework as shown in Fig. 1b for estimating realistic PMP over the west coast of North America, where atmospheric rivers (ARs) are dominant. The fundamental questions are whether the simulated atmospheric fields are realistic

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Xiaoduo Pan, Xin Li, Kun Yang, Jie He, Yanlin Zhang, and Xujun Han

become necessary ( Colle et al. 1999 ; Su et al. 2008 ; Zong and Wang 2011 ; Ward et al. 2011 ). The Heihe River basin (HRB) is a relatively large mountainous watershed for precipitation evaluation, owing to its complex terrain and diverse landscapes from upstream to downstream, with glaciers, frozen soil, alpine meadow, forest, irrigated crops, riparian ecosystems, and the Gobi desert. The HRB is a typical inland river basin in an arid region, where there is severe conflict between the water

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Jianbin Su, Haishen Lü, Wade T. Crow, Yonghua Zhu, and Yifan Cui

the ground-based observations and 2) to examine the effect of spatial and temporal degradation on accuracy measures. The Huai River basin (HuaiRB), a midlatitude basin that is frequently affected by floods and droughts, has been selected as the study area. This study will reveal the error features of IMERG products over the HuaiRB and provide useful guidelines for potential IMERG users. In addition, the sensitivity of various performance metrics to spatial and temporal resolution degradation is

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Isidora Jankov, Paul J. Schultz, Christopher J. Anderson, and Steven E. Koch

research and development toward better observations of precipitating cloud systems and numerical forecasts of precipitation. HMT involves a collaboration of several NOAA laboratories and National Weather Service forecast offices. In the present study, the main area of interest during the HMT field experiments of 2005 December through 2006 March is the American River basin (ARB), which is a mountainous and relatively small (approximately 75 × 75 km) drainage basin between Lake Tahoe and the city of

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Yi Yang, Jianping Tang, Zhe Xiong, and Xinning Dong

been many intercomparison studies aimed at evaluating HRPPs, evaluation studies and comparison of HRPPs over northwestern China are rare ( Wu et al. 2013 ; He et al. 2015 ; Yang and Luo 2014 ). Located in an arid and semiarid region of northwestern China, the HRB is the second largest inland river basin and displays a typical continental climate. Precipitation is one of the most important water resources over the HRB. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the spatiotemporal

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Er Lu, Eugene S. Takle, and Jha Manoj

. Qian et al. (2007) analyzed the hydroclimatic trends in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004, and they revealed that, with the increase of precipitation, both runoff and evapotranspiration have increased. The increase of evapotranspiration is shown from a model to be dominated by the change of precipitation, whereas the change of temperature has a small effect. Miller and Piechota (2008) examined changes of temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the Colorado River basin using

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Xin Wang, Jun Wen, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Yingying Chen

investigation, we seek to further improve a state-of-the-art Noah LSM ( Ek et al. 2003 ) in its ability to simultaneously produce soil moisture and temperature profiles measured in the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this two-part series, we study the model physics associated with the soil water flow simulation through comparisons of the soil parameterization with hydraulic properties measured in the laboratory and through comparisons of simulations with in

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James M. Gilbert, Reed M. Maxwell, and David J. Gochis

planetary boundary layer over the San Joaquin River basin in central California. The approach used in this study comprises a series of simulation components, described in the following sections. a. Domain and time period of interest The model domain is centered on the San Joaquin River basin and covers the majority of the contributing area of the watershed in the Sierra Nevada and the Central Valley floor. The domain is 270 km in the east–west dimension and 240 km in the north–south dimension. The map

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Sunghee Kim, Hossein Sadeghi, Reza Ahmad Limon, Manabendra Saharia, Dong-Jun Seo, Andrew Philpott, Frank Bell, James Brown, and Minxue He

1. Introduction Accurate forecasting of river flow is not only important for flood prediction, but also for a range of applications associated with design, operation, and management of water resources infrastructure. To issue early warnings for the public to act, for emergency managers to take preventive actions, and for water managers to operate reservoirs and other systems effectively, it is necessary to maximize the forecast lead time while properly accounting for the forecast uncertainties

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Andrew Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Laurel DeHaan, Rachel Weihs, John Helly, David Reynolds, and Sam Iacobellis

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a vital role in delivering rain and snow to western North America ( Ralph et al. 2004 ; Leung and Qian 2009 ; Guan et al. 2010 ; Ralph et al. 2010 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2013 ). In some regions, as much as 50% of annual precipitation falls on days when an AR is present ( Rutz et al. 2014 ). ARs play an important role in regional recovery from drought ( Dettinger 2013 ) and have been linked to major flooding events in western

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