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Toshiaki Shinoda, Weiqing Han, E. Joseph Metzger, and Harley E. Hurlburt

-40) forcing fields for the period 1958–2001, the period for which ERA-40 fields are available. Restarting from 1 January 2000, the experiment was extended from 2000 to 2008 using 3-day mean winds from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), net longwave and shortwave radiation from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project flux (ISCCP-FD) ( Zhang et al. 2004 ), air temperature and specific humidity from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric

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R. W. Lindsay and H. L. Stern

formalism of SPH, which has been used widely to solve the momentum equation in a variety of modeling problems. It was first developed to solve astrophysical problems ( Lucy 1977 ; Gingold and Monaghan 1977 ) and has now been applied (references in Monaghan 1992 ) to gas dynamics, stellar collisions, impacts, cloud collisions, disks and rings, jets, motion near black holes, supernovas, and special and general relativity. It has also been used for cohesive granular flow ( Oger and Savage 1999 ) and for

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R. Iacono, E. Napolitano, S. Marullo, V. Artale, and A. Vetrano

(see sketch in Fig. 1 ). In winter, these structures are embedded into a basin-scale cyclonic cell that brings the AW from the south up to the northern end of the basin. In summer, the AW circulation weakens and appears more confined, the cyclonic centers intensify, and a few other eddies appear in the eastern part of the TYS. The typical wind forcing over the basin can be inferred from Fig. 2 , which shows the relative vorticity at 1000 mb [1990–2010 averages from the European Centre for Medium

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Terrence M. Joyce, Claude Frankignoul, Jiayan Yang, and Helen E. Phillips

using the bulk formulas of Large et al. (1997) and surface atmospheric variables from the six-hourly NCEP–NCAR reanalysis covering the period 1958–97. Satellite estimates of cloud fraction, surface insolation, and precipitation were incorporated where available and long-term monthly climatological values were used prior to satellite coverage. Doney et al. (2003) describe the model architecture and forcing and show that the magnitude and phase of interannual variability in the model compare

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Dong Wang, Tobias Kukulka, Brandon G. Reichl, Tetsu Hara, Isaac Ginis, and Peter P. Sullivan

, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4224.1 . 10.1175/2009JPO4224.1 Farmer , D. , and M. Li , 1995 : Patterns of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 1426 – 1440 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Gargett , A. , and C. E. Grosch , 2014 : Turbulence process domination under the combined forcings of wind stress, the Langmuir vortex force, and surface cooling . J. Phys

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Alexander V. Wilchinsky, Harold D. B. S. Heorton, Daniel L. Feltham, and Paul R. Holland

lead. We assume the mixed layer has depth D = 20 m and that there is little mixing with the underlying water. The only modeled interaction between the mixed layer and deep ocean is the heat flux Q o , prescribed in this study by the CICE model forcing. The water characteristics in the lead box under the lead are given by its temperature T , salinity S , and frazil ice concentration C , the volume of frazil ice per unit volume of the lead box. The seawater in the ambient box is represented by

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Blair J. W. Greenan, Neil S. Oakey, and Fred W. Dobson

1. Introduction The ocean mixed layer (OML) is defined as the region of the upper ocean directly influenced by surface mixing processes. This layer is bounded by the ocean’s surface on top and by the pycnocline at the bottom. The predominant seasonal and daily cycles in this layer originate at the ocean surface. Forcing variables for the OML are primarily solar heating, wind stress, and vertical fluxes of latent and sensible heat. Nevertheless, in some circumstances precipitation or evaporation

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Stephen E. Zebiak

atmospheric forcing. One of the major shortcomings in current OGCMs is the parameterization of vertical turbulent mixing processes in the upper ocean. Poorly specified turbulent mixing schemes can lead to large deviations in simulated and observed mean climatology and variability. Considerable efforts have thus been devoted to this problem; some sophisticated schemes have been developed for use in OGCMs that can better produce observed current and thermal structure (e.g., Pacanowski and Philander 1981

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Ants Leetmaa

wereobtained from the National Climatic Center for thelocations shown in Fig. 1. Cloudiness data for 196673 were obtained from the cloud atlas of Sadler, etal. (1976). For the 1972-73 El Niro monthly valuesof the winds, sea-surface temperature (SST) and thenet heat gain were available from Ramage et al.(1980). Standard bulk formulas were used to computethe terms in the heat budget from the monthly-m~andata. These formulas are described in the Appendix.2. The annual cycle A simple ocean mixed-layer model

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Esther C. Brady

reduced-gravity model developed by Gent and Cane (1989) and Gent ( 1991 ) isused to simulate the evolution of the heat content inthe equatorial Pacific over the past two decades withobserved wind forcing. The model run analyzed hereis forced with a 20-year time series of monthly meanwind stress obtained from the Florida State University(FSU) pseudostress observations from the years 19711990. Spinup of the model took place over many modelyears. Starting from rest the model was forced with arepeat

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