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R. W. Lindsay and H. L. Stern

formalism of SPH, which has been used widely to solve the momentum equation in a variety of modeling problems. It was first developed to solve astrophysical problems ( Lucy 1977 ; Gingold and Monaghan 1977 ) and has now been applied (references in Monaghan 1992 ) to gas dynamics, stellar collisions, impacts, cloud collisions, disks and rings, jets, motion near black holes, supernovas, and special and general relativity. It has also been used for cohesive granular flow ( Oger and Savage 1999 ) and for

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Terrence M. Joyce, Claude Frankignoul, Jiayan Yang, and Helen E. Phillips

using the bulk formulas of Large et al. (1997) and surface atmospheric variables from the six-hourly NCEP–NCAR reanalysis covering the period 1958–97. Satellite estimates of cloud fraction, surface insolation, and precipitation were incorporated where available and long-term monthly climatological values were used prior to satellite coverage. Doney et al. (2003) describe the model architecture and forcing and show that the magnitude and phase of interannual variability in the model compare

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Dong Wang, Tobias Kukulka, Brandon G. Reichl, Tetsu Hara, Isaac Ginis, and Peter P. Sullivan

, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4224.1 . 10.1175/2009JPO4224.1 Farmer , D. , and M. Li , 1995 : Patterns of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 1426 – 1440 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Gargett , A. , and C. E. Grosch , 2014 : Turbulence process domination under the combined forcings of wind stress, the Langmuir vortex force, and surface cooling . J. Phys

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Warren M. Washington, Albert J. Semtner Jr., Claire Parkinson, and Louise Morrison

model could have affected the icedistribution. Moreover, their coupled model was drivenby annual mean, rather than seasonally varying, solarinsolation. They did not perform calculations withrealistic forcing to see what sea-ice distribution resulted.The thermodynamics of their model was considerablysimpler than that used here, but it did include transport. In this paper, we consider that aspect of the sea-iceproblem dealing solely with thermodynamics. Theimportant processes of ice transport will

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J. H. Lee, J. P. Monty, J. Elsnab, A. Toffoli, A. V. Babanin, and A. Alberello

of waves in the presence of wind forcing. The objective of the current study is to improve the overall understanding of wave-induced turbulence and its influence on the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation near the water surface. In particular, we seek to address and observe depth and phase dependencies on the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate close to the free surface due to wave-induced turbulence in the absence of wind shear stresses along the air–water interface. To this end

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Alexander V. Wilchinsky, Harold D. B. S. Heorton, Daniel L. Feltham, and Paul R. Holland

lead. We assume the mixed layer has depth D = 20 m and that there is little mixing with the underlying water. The only modeled interaction between the mixed layer and deep ocean is the heat flux Q o , prescribed in this study by the CICE model forcing. The water characteristics in the lead box under the lead are given by its temperature T , salinity S , and frazil ice concentration C , the volume of frazil ice per unit volume of the lead box. The seawater in the ambient box is represented by

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Stephen E. Zebiak

atmospheric forcing. One of the major shortcomings in current OGCMs is the parameterization of vertical turbulent mixing processes in the upper ocean. Poorly specified turbulent mixing schemes can lead to large deviations in simulated and observed mean climatology and variability. Considerable efforts have thus been devoted to this problem; some sophisticated schemes have been developed for use in OGCMs that can better produce observed current and thermal structure (e.g., Pacanowski and Philander 1981

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Blair J. W. Greenan, Neil S. Oakey, and Fred W. Dobson

1. Introduction The ocean mixed layer (OML) is defined as the region of the upper ocean directly influenced by surface mixing processes. This layer is bounded by the ocean’s surface on top and by the pycnocline at the bottom. The predominant seasonal and daily cycles in this layer originate at the ocean surface. Forcing variables for the OML are primarily solar heating, wind stress, and vertical fluxes of latent and sensible heat. Nevertheless, in some circumstances precipitation or evaporation

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Ants Leetmaa

wereobtained from the National Climatic Center for thelocations shown in Fig. 1. Cloudiness data for 196673 were obtained from the cloud atlas of Sadler, etal. (1976). For the 1972-73 El Niro monthly valuesof the winds, sea-surface temperature (SST) and thenet heat gain were available from Ramage et al.(1980). Standard bulk formulas were used to computethe terms in the heat budget from the monthly-m~andata. These formulas are described in the Appendix.2. The annual cycle A simple ocean mixed-layer model

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Gregory P. Gerbi, Samuel E. Kastner, and Genevieve Brett

and McWilliams (2005 , 2008) and Haidvogel et al. (2008) [as corrected by Shchepetkin and McWilliams (2009) ]. We configure ROMS to behave as a one-dimensional model by using six grid cells with periodic boundary conditions in each horizontal dimension. Water depth is set to 100 m with 1000 vertical layers of uniform thickness, and the time step is 30 s. No heat or salt flux is allowed through the sea surface. We use no tidal forcing, and the surface momentum forcing is applied through a

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