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Wei Qi, Chi Zhang, Guangtao Fu, Huicheng Zhou, and Junguo Liu

for supporting the livelihood of the population and is a significant industrial region as well. This region frequently suffers from extreme floods that pose a threat to the regional sustainable development. Thus, this study is carried out in a river basin, the Biliu basin, in northeastern China to investigate extreme flood predictions under climate change. The Biliu basin, located in a coastal region between the Bohai Sea and the Huanghai Sea, covers an area of 2814 km 2 , from 39.54° to 40.35°N

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Ye Tian, Yue-Ping Xu, Martijn J. Booij, and Guoqing Wang

1. Introduction Water resources are of key importance to human society and are also vulnerable to climate change. In recent years, climate change has changed water availability, accelerated floods and droughts, increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, and raised sea levels ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). The impacts are occurring and are expected to continue in many regions of the world ( Pachauri and Reisinger 2007 ). Therefore, investigating the impact of climate change on hydrology and

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Di Tian, Christopher J. Martinez, and Wendy D. Graham

, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature or relative humidity, which are often not available in many regions. Coupled ocean–land–atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) combine models for the ocean, atmosphere, land surface, and sea ice and run from several months to 1 year ahead to produce seasonal forecasts ( Troccoli 2010 ). CGCMs have been operationally implemented at major weather and climate forecast centers around the world ( Palmer et al. 2004 ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Yuan et al. 2011

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Melanie Raimonet, Ludovic Oudin, Vincent Thieu, Marie Silvestre, Robert Vautard, Christophe Rabouille, and Patrick Le Moigne

1979 ( Dee et al. 2011 ), and the ECMWF twentieth-century reanalysis (ERA-20C), which only assimilates observations of surface and mean sea level pressures and surface marine winds, starts in 1900 ( Poli et al. 2016 ). Evaluation of meteorological datasets is crucial ( You et al. 2015 ) since such products bear limitations that may originate from several sources: low spatial or temporal resolution, a sparse observation station network, misrepresentation of the impact of topography, and atmospheric

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Ning Zhang, Yan Chen, Ling Luo, and Yongwei Wang

broke local historical records at many stations. At least 40 people died during the heat wave, according to the Xinhua news service ( http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/indepth/2013-08/13/c_132627590.htm ). During the strong El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode in 2013, the July sea surface temperature (SST) over the middle North Atlantic was the warmest in the past 160 years, and the strong SST anomaly impacted the East Asian upper-level westerly jet and western Pacific subtropical high, then

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

Mississippi basin mainly east of the Great Plains. This area also shows a major oceanic source from the Gulf of Mexico, but with more extent into the northern Caribbean Sea (see Dirmeyer and Kinter 2010 ) and little moisture coming from the west. There is again a substantial terrestrial source over the southern and central portions of the area. Figure 2 (top) also shows the evaporative source for the East Coast, which shows much more of a source from the open Atlantic than does the Mississippi basin

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Yafeng Zhang, Bin He, Lanlan Guo, and Daochen Liu

, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24398 . 10.1038/srep24398 Lorenzo-Lacruz , J. , C. Garcia , and E. Morán-Tejeda , 2017 : Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers . J. Hydrol. , 552 , 516 – 531 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.011 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.011 Menemenlis , D. , and Coauthors , 2008 : ECCO2: High resolution global ocean and sea ice data synthesis. AGU Fall Meeting , San Francisco, CA, Amer. Geophys. Union

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

reaching ~40°C) whereas winters are cold and wet (minimum temperature may go down to about −20°C). While the southwestern upstream part shows a warmer and wetter Mediterranean character, the rest of the basin has a drier, continental climate, isolated from the moderating effect of the Mediterranean Sea by the Taurus Mountains in the south. The land cover in the basin shows a strong contrast between intensively irrigated agricultural lands and the sparsely vegetated steppe areas covering the mid- and

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Tushar Apurv, Ximing Cai, and Xing Yuan

. Previous studies have shown that the meteorological drought frequency in the continental United States (CONUS) oscillates at the multidecadal time scale ( Gray et al. 2003 ), as a result of oscillations in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific Ocean ( McCabe and Dettinger 1999 ; Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ) and the North Atlantic Ocean ( Enfield et al. 2001 ). This is because the interdecadal variability of precipitation in the United States is modulated by the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO

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Silvia Terzago, Jost von Hardenberg, Elisa Palazzi, and Antonello Provenzale

slopes of the Himalayas during the summer months, from July to September. The WWP are weather disturbances coming from the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas and propagating eastward, mainly during winter months ( Singh et al. 1995 ; Archer and Fowler 2004 ; Syed et al. 2006 ), which discharge precipitation over the HKK mountains, feeding the snow reservoirs. The spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation in HKKH has been studied by Palazzi et al. (2013) using station-based gridded

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