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Melanie Raimonet, Ludovic Oudin, Vincent Thieu, Marie Silvestre, Robert Vautard, Christophe Rabouille, and Patrick Le Moigne

1979 ( Dee et al. 2011 ), and the ECMWF twentieth-century reanalysis (ERA-20C), which only assimilates observations of surface and mean sea level pressures and surface marine winds, starts in 1900 ( Poli et al. 2016 ). Evaluation of meteorological datasets is crucial ( You et al. 2015 ) since such products bear limitations that may originate from several sources: low spatial or temporal resolution, a sparse observation station network, misrepresentation of the impact of topography, and atmospheric

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Ye Tian, Yue-Ping Xu, Martijn J. Booij, and Guoqing Wang

1. Introduction Water resources are of key importance to human society and are also vulnerable to climate change. In recent years, climate change has changed water availability, accelerated floods and droughts, increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, and raised sea levels ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). The impacts are occurring and are expected to continue in many regions of the world ( Pachauri and Reisinger 2007 ). Therefore, investigating the impact of climate change on hydrology and

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, and Witold F. Krajewski

basin have runoff ratios for the September 2004 flood that are in the 70%–100% range. b. April 2005 Extreme flooding in the Delaware River basin on 2 April 2005 was associated with an extratropical cyclone that tracked up the East Coast. The surface low was located along the Gulf Coast near New Orleans at 1200 UTC 1 April with a minimum sea level pressure of 1009.7 hPa; 12 h later, central pressure had decreased to 1001.1 hPa and the low was centered in the southern Appalachians (figure not shown

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Wei Qi, Chi Zhang, Guangtao Fu, Huicheng Zhou, and Junguo Liu

for supporting the livelihood of the population and is a significant industrial region as well. This region frequently suffers from extreme floods that pose a threat to the regional sustainable development. Thus, this study is carried out in a river basin, the Biliu basin, in northeastern China to investigate extreme flood predictions under climate change. The Biliu basin, located in a coastal region between the Bohai Sea and the Huanghai Sea, covers an area of 2814 km 2 , from 39.54° to 40.35°N

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

Mississippi basin mainly east of the Great Plains. This area also shows a major oceanic source from the Gulf of Mexico, but with more extent into the northern Caribbean Sea (see Dirmeyer and Kinter 2010 ) and little moisture coming from the west. There is again a substantial terrestrial source over the southern and central portions of the area. Figure 2 (top) also shows the evaporative source for the East Coast, which shows much more of a source from the open Atlantic than does the Mississippi basin

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Pouya Vahmani and Terri S. Hogue

covers approximately 1291 km 2 and is one of the most highly urbanized and least green cities in the country ( McPherson et al. 2008 ). The region has a Mediterranean climate, receiving on average around 38 cm (15 in.) of rainfall per year ( NOAA/CSC 2003 ). Large interannual variations in the region’s climate are driven by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, where the positive phase (El Niño) is typically associated with enhanced wintertime rainfall ( NOAA/CSC 2003 ). Offshore flows

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Di Tian, Christopher J. Martinez, and Wendy D. Graham

, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature or relative humidity, which are often not available in many regions. Coupled ocean–land–atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) combine models for the ocean, atmosphere, land surface, and sea ice and run from several months to 1 year ahead to produce seasonal forecasts ( Troccoli 2010 ). CGCMs have been operationally implemented at major weather and climate forecast centers around the world ( Palmer et al. 2004 ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Yuan et al. 2011

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Ning Zhang, Yan Chen, Ling Luo, and Yongwei Wang

broke local historical records at many stations. At least 40 people died during the heat wave, according to the Xinhua news service ( http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/indepth/2013-08/13/c_132627590.htm ). During the strong El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode in 2013, the July sea surface temperature (SST) over the middle North Atlantic was the warmest in the past 160 years, and the strong SST anomaly impacted the East Asian upper-level westerly jet and western Pacific subtropical high, then

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

) indicate the opposite. Figure 3a shows the difference in CORR of daily precipitation. Apart from few regions in the Sahara Desert, Mediterranean Sea, and other scattered spots over oceans, PDIR-Now shows a better CORR compared to PERSIANN-CCS. While the average increase in CORR over the entire global domain is only marginal (0.52–0.57; see Table 1 ), significant regional improvement is present specifically over eastern Asia. Precisely, CORR in daily precipitation improves from 0.44 to 0.54 over the

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Korbinian Breinl, Hannes Müller-Thomy, and Günter Blöschl

westerly Stau and the north-northwesterly flow are characterized by higher wind speeds compared to the northwesterly flow. The high rainfall across the southern border in Carinthia is to a large degree related to the southerly Stau pattern, that is, southerly flow at higher and lower levels ( Seibert et al. 2007 ). Airflow at low levels supports advection of humidity from the Mediterranean Sea, which is precipitated over the Alps ( Seibert et al. 2007 ). As the four synoptic patterns mentioned above

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