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James A. Mueller and Fabrice Veron

develop a similarity hypothesis regarding the statistical nature of the turbulent flow dependent on the relative forcing of the mechanical and buoyant mechanisms. Although Monin–Obukhov (M–O) similarity theory was originally applied to dry air, it has since been extended to moist air such that the structure of turbulence is determined by the height above the surface z , the buoyancy parameter g /Θ υ , the momentum flux scale or friction velocity u * , and the surface buoyancy flux B p , with the

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Ryan J. Moniz, Derek A. Fong, C. Brock Woodson, Susan K. Willis, Mark T. Stacey, and Stephen G. Monismith

-driven diurnal upwelling and internal waves and bores ( Drake et al. 2005 ; Petruncio et al. 1998 ; Woodson et al. 2007 ; Walter et al. 2012 ); these reflect the complex interaction of regional-scale forcing on local coastal flows (C. B. Woodson and D. A. Fong 2013, unpublished manuscript). In effect, these processes act on a broad range of time and spatial scales and have the capacity to collectively enhance scalar transport and dispersion. Richardson (1926) first introduced the concept of scale

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Pengyang Song and Xueen Chen

set from the ocean surface to the seafloor with 9 layers in the upper 100 m and 29 layers in the upper 1000 m. The model topography is interpolated from ETOPO2 ( NGDC 2006 ); the maximum and minimum depths are set to 6500 and 31 m, respectively. The daily climatological surface forcing, including the surface air temperature, 2-m dewpoint temperature, sea level pressure, 10-m wind speed, wind stress, cloud cover, shortwave radiation, and precipitation (river runoff is ignored here), is interpolated

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Tangdong Qu, Shan Gao, Ichiro Fukumori, Rana A. Fine, and Eric J. Lindstrom

. Oceanogr. , 21 , 346 – 363 . Wang , C. , and P. C. Fiedler , 2006 : ENSO variability and the eastern tropical Pacific: A review. Prog. Oceanogr. , 69 , 239 – 266 . Wang , Y. , S-P. Xie , B. Wang , and H. Xu , 2005 : Large-scale atmospheric forcing by southeast Pacific boundary layer clouds: A regional model study. J. Climate , 18 , 943 – 951 . Wyrtki , K. , 1964 : Upwelling in the Costa Rica Dome. Fish Bull. , 63 , 355 – 372 . Wyrtki , K. , 1975 : El Niño

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K. Bryan, S. Manabe, and M. J. Spelman

JUNE 1988 K. BRYAN, S. MANABE AND M. J. SPELMAN 851Interhemispheric Asymmetry in the Transient Response of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a C02 Forcing K. BRYAN, S. MANABE AND M. J. SPELMANGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 5 May 1987, in final form 8 December 1987)ABSTRACT Numerical

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Shenfu Dong and Kathryn A. Kelly

. After its formation, EDW is subsequently subducted below the surface mixed layer and is seasonally isolated from interaction with the atmosphere. EDW formed in one winter can interact with the atmosphere in subsequent winters through entrainment into the mixed layer. With their large heat content and their ability to retain a year-to-year memory of property variations as a result of changing forcing conditions ( Alexander and Deser 1995 ; Timlin et al. 2002 ), mode waters represent an integrator of

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Kay I. Ohshima and Sohey Nihashi

, F n ( x , t ), heat flux calculations were made based on the bulk and empirical formulas used in Nihashi and Ohshima (2001a) . The calculation includes the surface radiative and turbulent heat fluxes. For atmospheric forcing, ERA-15 data are used. The cloud cover data are obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data. The original grid of the ERA-15 is a Gaussian (N80) grid with an approximate resolution of 1.125°. Figure 5a shows the net heat flux at the water

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Lianghua Shu and Allan J. Clarke

of the warm pool is near the international date line, and the typical eastward and westward equatorial displacements from this mean position are about 2000 km. Consequently, the interannual coupling of ocean and atmosphere is strongest in the equatorial west-central Pacific from about 160°E to 160°W. It is here that the equatorial interannual heating of the atmosphere by deep atmospheric convection is largest and that the interannual zonal equatorial winds forcing the ocean are strongest. It is

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Tobias Kukulka, Albert J. Plueddemann, John H. Trowbridge, and Peter P. Sullivan

) conclude that LC effects were mostly confined to the initial mixed layer deepening and were, otherwise, a second-order effect compared to resonant wind forcing. Observations from Weller and Price (1988) indicate that LC play an important role in maintaining a shallow diurnal mixed layer but do not directly contribute to mixing processes near the base of the mixed layer between 40-m and 60-m depth. Based on a two-dimensional model with preexisting stratification, Li and Garrett (1997) suggest two

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Michele M. Rienecker, Christopher N. K. Mooers, and Allan R. Robinson

boundary forcing was likely to be onthe inshore boundary. Additional data would also beacquired farther offshore, for clarification of featureevolution. In addition to the five quasi-synoptic shipborne mappings, one fully synoptic AXBT mappingwas carded out by a U.S. Navy P3 aircraft on 18 July.The use of two research ships, the R/V Acania and theUSNS de Steiguer, also allowed one, albeit asynoptic,regional mapping from Cape Mendocino to Monterey;this enabled the features in the smaller domain to

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