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Robert C. Bundgaard

with I.At least 63 (75) per cent of the time, term I is 10 (4)times larger than term 11, or more. These statisticswere based upon 236 comparisons of terms I and 11.These comparisons were made from ten consecutive1500 GCT 500-mb maps beginning with 13 February1953. From each map, these comparisons were madefrom a geographical grid of 48 points equally spacedover the United States. In these comparisons, thefields of wind and pressure were analyzed independently; their functions I and I1 in (5) were

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Mauro Di Luzio
,
Gregory L. Johnson
,
Christopher Daly
,
Jon K. Eischeid
, and
Jeffrey G. Arnold

map algebra functions for combining the surface interpolation maps (ratios; see procedure 3) and the respective PRISM monthly grids. The map algebra functions combine data on a cell-by-cell basis to derive the final target information grid dataset. In this way, operating on each cell, the target daily precipitation grid was obtained as the result of the following combination: where daily P ( i ) is precipitation grid at day i , daily I r ( i ) is grid of IDW interpolated station ratios [see Eq

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J. K. ANGELL

, the routine 300-mb. map analysis isreasonably accurate. Table 4 gives the algebraic andabsolute values of the angle between wind and geostrophicwind (i) and the difference in speed and geostrophicspeed (V- VE) over the Pacific and over the United Statesobtained from comparisons of 6-hour average transosondevelocities and geostrophic velocities. The comparisonwas limited to the months of September, October, andNovember, since in December the transosonde positionsbegan to be plotted and utilized as

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J. K. ANGELL

all FCC-positioned transosondeflights which traversed t'his area a t 300 and 250 mb.Since it was only legitimate to make the comparisonsat synoptic map time, only about 200 geostrophic velocitydifferences went into figure 3 wit'h the averctge numberof comparisons varying from about three per 5' liititdc-longitude area in the belt' of rnaxirnum flight frequencybetween40' and 45' IT., to twa comparisons per unitarea between 50' and 55' N., :wd one comparison perunit area between 15' and 20' N. The

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Jordi Isern-Fontanet
,
Emilio García-Ladona
, and
Jordi Font

–Weiss parameter. The comparison of trajectories obtained with these two methods showed that both sets of trajectories presented similar patterns (not shown). Last, the complete set of the 213 maps of the Okubo–Weiss parameter for the whole basin, with vortices labeled automatically as described before, has been visually inspected, showing that there were few errors in the trajectories obtained with the automatic method. 5. Discussion The application of the Okubo–Weiss criterion has shown a basin full of

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Claude-Morel
and
Ranjit M. Passi

efficiency, and(iii) simplicity of implementation. Its implementation is demonstrated on a set of pressure datg collectedby CLASS.1. Introduction The National Center for Atmospheric Research hasdeveloped a radiosonde system named Cross-ChainLORAN Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS). Itis planned to employ this new system in operationalfield projects where the data will be distributed to theresearch community in real time for comparison andpooling with other systems to perform real-time analyses and

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Chiara Corbari
and
Marco Mancini

role in the computation of the principal mass and energy fluxes. In the literature these parameters are usually defined using soil texture maps ( Rawls and Brakensiek 1985 ), but problems of representativeness arise owing to pixel heterogeneity. Satellite images of land surface temperature can help in the calibration of these parameters in each pixel of the analyzed domain, overcoming the traditional calibration based on a single multiplicative value retrieved from the comparison between observed

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Hirohiko Ishikawa

10 20 30 40 [msq Horizontal windFIG. 4. Comparison of the horizontal wind profileat the crest of the two-dimensional mountain.ordinates. The computational domain was a 4508 kmx 4508 km area in the map coordinates. The horizontalmesh width was 92 km. The vertical depth was 6000 m;zt = 6000 m was assumed. The vertical mesh numberwas 20, and the mesh width varied from 100 m (bpttomlayer) to 500 m (top layer). The input meteorological data were meteorologicalfields

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B. M. VARNEY

Bemmelen's Table 1 in Met. Zeit., May 1924 p. 134. Arrows fly with the wlnd. Velocities in m. p. s., each feather equaling 1 m. p. s. At 10-Inn. altitude and below, tenths of D m. p. s. m approximatelp &&nted by the frnctional lengths of a fe8the.rS ~M B E R , 1924 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 448melen's table into graphic form (fig. 1) that the great seasonal shifts of theairstreams over western Java may be more clearly visualized and a comparison made easywith his map showing conditions at the

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Curt Covey
,
Peter J. Gleckler
,
Charles Doutriaux
,
Dean N. Williams
,
Aiguo Dai
,
John Fasullo
,
Kevin Trenberth
, and
Alexis Berg

-look metrics. 3. Guidelines for metrics Figure 1 presents the diurnal harmonic amplitude and phase from the observations. Since warm seasons have similar dynamics, Fig. 1 combines Northern Hemisphere July and Southern Hemisphere January in both maps. The resulting discontinuity at the equator is small. (Corresponding cold season maps provide little additional information because coherent diurnal variation outside the tropics is small; cf. Figs. S2–S5 in the supplemental material.) The diurnal

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