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A. Rinke, C. Melsheimer, K. Dethloff, and G. Heygster

thermodynamic influences. The spatial distribution of TWV is strongly coupled with temperature via the thermodynamic constraint of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation (temperature dependence of the saturation water vapor pressure). However, the spatial variability of Arctic TWV is dominated by changes in the large-scale dynamics, accompanied by changes in cyclone paths and/or intensity. Previous studies found a clear dependence of the Arctic moisture budget on the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation

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Hengchun Ye, Steve Ladochy, Daqing Yang, Tingjun Zhang, Xuebin Zhang, and Mark Ellison

, Peterson et al. (2002) suggested that increased Arctic river discharges are correlated with the increasing trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and global surface air temperatures through enhanced moisture transport into the Arctic. The observed earlier snowmelt and shift of peak flow a few days earlier is a response to increasing spring air temperature ( Yang et al. 2002 ). This directly affects flooding intensity and frequency in the region ( Burn 1997 ; Cunderlik and Burn 2002 ). River

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Mark C. Serreze, Martyn P. Clark, and David H. Bromwich

high-latitude environment ( Serreze et al. 2000 ; Moritz et al. 2002 ). Pronounced winter and spring warming over Eurasia and northwest North America since about 1970 is partly compensated by cooling over eastern Canada and the northern North Atlantic. This has been attended by shifts in the atmospheric circulation characterized by dominance of the positive mode of the Arctic Oscillation–North Atlantic Oscillation ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ). Climate proxies (e.g., tree rings and varves

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Yoshiki Fukutomi, Hiromichi Igarashi, Kooiti Masuda, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

hemispheric wavelike pattern. In addition, variation on a similar timescale has been noticed in global temperature ( Mann and Park 1994 ), Arctic sea ice anomalies ( Arfeuille et al. 2000 ), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (e.g., Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Pozo-Vázquez et al. 2001 ; Costa and de Verdiere 2002 ). These earlier studies imply that the atmosphere–ocean coupling system in the North Atlantic domain may be an effective driving force for the hemispheric atmospheric mode at this timescale

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Stephen J. Déry, Marc Stieglitz, Åsa K. Rennermalm, and Eric F. Wood

.1029/2001JD001251 . Déry, S. J. , and Wood E. F. , 2004 : Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 . L18205, doi:10.1029/2004GL020729 . Déry, S. J. , and Wood E. F. , 2005 : Decreasing river discharge in northern Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 . L10401, doi:10.1029/2005GL022845 . Déry, S. J. , Taylor P. A. , and Xiao J. , 1998 : The thermodynamic effects of sublimating, blowing snow in the atmospheric boundary layer

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Xueli Huo, Zhongfang Liu, Qingyun Duan, Pengmei Hao, Yanyan Zhang, Yonghong Hao, and Hongbin Zhan

variability in the Prince Edward Island region was mostly influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The groundwater levels in southern Manitoba near the Winnipeg region were affected by the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern, and the groundwater levels in the Vancouver Island region were impacted by NAO, AO, and ENSO. Furthermore, Perez-Valdivia et al. (2012) used Spearman rank correlation and spectral analyses to assess the effects of climate teleconnection

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Adam K. Gobena and Thian Y. Gan

conserves variance. It has been used to study the relationships between Indian rainfall and ENSO ( Torrence and Webster 1999 ), Baltic Sea ice conditions and the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillation indices ( Jevrejeva et al. 2003 ), and western Canadian precipitation ( Gan et al. 2007 ). In this study, the SAWP, bandpass filtering, and wavelet coherency are used to investigate the spatiotemporal features of interannual to interdecadal oscillations in precipitation and streamflow and their associations

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, and Jens H. Christensen

regional scale (consider, e.g., the North Atlantic Oscillation), so it is difficult to determine which part of the response of a model is due to anthropogenic forcing and to natural variability (solar, volcanic, but also unforced), respectively. This implies that there is no single “best” model to use in an assessment of Arctic (or Greenland) climate changes, although some models clearly perform better than others (e.g., Christensen et al. 2007b ; Walsh et al. 2008 ). However, most of the

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Marc Stieglitz, Agnès Ducharne, Randy Koster, and Max Suarez

oscillations in the Arctic: A new feedback loop for atmosphere–ice–ocean interactions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3607–3610 . 10.1029/98GL02782 Namias, J., 1985: Some empirical evidence for the influence of snow cover on temperature and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1542–1553 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1542:SEEFTI>2.0.CO;2 NSIDC, 1996: Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid weekly snow cover and sea ice extent. Volumes 1.0–2.0, National Snow and Ice Data Center, CD-ROM . Oechel, W. C., G. Vourlitis

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Mehmet Özger, Ashok K. Mishra, and Vijay P. Singh

. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1149 – 1165 . Hiller, T. L. , and Powell L. A. , 2009 : Long-term agricultural land-use trends in Nebraska, 1866–2007 . Great Plains Res. , 19 , 225 – 237 . Jang, J.-S. R. , 1993 : ANFIS: Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system . IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. , 23 , 665 – 684 . Jevrejeva, S. , Moore J. C. , and Grinsted A. , 2003 : Influence of the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) on ice conditions in the Baltic Sea

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