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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

longwave radiation scheme described by Chen and Cotton ( Chen and Cotton, 1983 ; Chen and Cotton, 1987 ). The model was initialized and driven by boundary conditions taken from a transitory simulation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mark 2 atmosphere–ocean model ( Watterson and Dix, 2003 ). The CSIRO model has a spatial resolution of approximately 3.2° latitude and 5.6° longitude and includes nine vertical layers for the atmosphere. Climate simulations

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Hector Chikoore and Mark R. Jury

predictability ( Entin et al. 1999 ). In the short term, besides providing moisture for evaporation, near-surface soil moisture controls the partitioning of available energy at the ground surface into sensible and latent heat exchange with the boundary layer. Over longer periods, soil moisture also modulates droughts and floods ( Pan et al. 1999 ). Thus, an understanding of the distribution and linkages of soil moisture to evapotranspiration is essential to predict upward feedbacks of land surface processes

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Johna E. Rudzin, Steven L. Morey, Mark A. Bourassa, and Shawn R. Smith

1. Introduction This study investigates the sensitivity of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Florida Straits (FS) to the position of the Loop Current (LC) during the winter season. The LC is a western boundary current within the Gulf Stream system in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The current flows northward after entering the GOM through the Yucatan Channel, “loops” in a clockwise direction, and exits east through the FS ( Leben 2005 ) ( Figure 1 ). The LC cycles stochastically between two

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

. Global hurricane tracks from IBTrACs. Bold lines are category 4 and 5 TCs. Contour lines are annual-mean sea surface temperature over 1960–2010. Notice that ocean currents (e.g., Gulf Stream and Kuroshio) have high correlation with the mean TC tracks. On the other hand, cold upwelling currents and the associated unfavorable wind shear prevent the formation of TCs. For example, the presence of the Peru/Humboldt Current and Benguela Current hinder the TC formation in the southeastern Pacific and

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Aubrey R. Jones and Nathaniel A. Brunsell

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interactions play an important role in determining regional weather and climate. Although this idea has been widely accepted, an understanding of the physical processes and the scales over which these interactions occur remains somewhat limited. Improving the current understanding of these relationships has important implications for increasing predictability of local weather and climate. According to Barros and Hwu ( Barros and Hwu 2002 ), the basis of studies

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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

and Mote 2010 ; Mahmood et al. 2011 ; Leeper et al. 2011 ; Suarez et al. 2014 ). Changes in surface heating and evapotranspiration (ET) rates over a heterogeneous land cover can give rise to thermal/density gradients at the surface that are large enough to organize the planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind fields into mesoscale circulations ( Smith et al. 1994 ). LULCC-related atmospheric response also affects convection and precipitation (cf. Chen and Avissar 1994 ; Carleton et al. 2001

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

(AC), a broad and weak eastern boundary current flowing northward in the eastern GOA. The AC becomes narrower and stronger as it approaches the northern GOA, ultimately leaving the region as the Alaskan Stream, an intense southwestward flowing current along the southern coast of Alaska (west of the panhandle) and the Aleutian Islands chain. Furthermore, there is a wave guide at the eastern margin of the GOA where the flow is highly variable due to variations in wind forcing and coastally trapped

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Xuefeng Cui, Hans-F. Graf, Baerbel Langmann, Wen Chen, and Ronghui Huang

with climatological global sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice averaged over the period 1978–94 as used for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project 2 (AMIP2; Gates et al. 1999 ) to eliminate additional interannual variability. The atmospheric variability represented in such integrations is generally less than that in simulations with interannually varying boundary conditions of SST and sea ice ( Bengtsson et al. 1996 ). This suppresses important interactions between deforestation and

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Sandra I. Saad, Humberto R. da Rocha, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, and Rafael Rosolem

2010 ; Martins et al. 2009 ). Avissar et al. ( Avissar et al. 2002 ) introduced a conceptual model of boundary layer circulation driven by thermal forest–pasture surface gradients, with a lifting mechanism over the deforestation, referred to as deforestation breeze. They suggested patterns of the effect of mesoscale deforestation on rainfall in the Amazon, whereby the rainfall increases with increasing areas of deforestation, and then, after some unknown threshold, rainfall would decrease with

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

1. Introduction The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over coasts and large islands often exhibits confluence zones that initiate convective cloud lines ( Malkus 1955 ; Cooper et al. 1982 ; Blanchard and López 1985 ; Wilson and Schreiber 1986 ; Chen and Yu 1988 ; Wakimoto and Atkins 1994 ; Kingsmill 1995 ). The confluence zones involve frictional drag, surface heat fluxes, mountain wakes, and sea breezes—an understanding of which can aid short-range local weather forecasts. The ABL over

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