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Meghan F. Cronin, Michael J. McPhaden, and Robert H. Weisberg

active convective phase of the 30–60 day intraseasonal Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Madden and Julian 1994 ), which tend to occur more frequently during November through March and during El Niño years. Superclusters of convective clouds associated with MJO have been observed to have an eastward propagation of up to 10–15 m s −1 ( Nakazawa 1988 ). Analytical and numerical models of the ocean response to wind forcing (e.g., Cane and Sarachik 1976 ; McCreary 1985 ; Tang and Weisberg 1984

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A. Graham

1. Introduction An acoustic study of bubble concentrations has been made as part of a recent experiment to investigate air– sea exchanges, as described in a companion paper ( Graham et al. 2004 ; hereinafter Part I). Here, related fluxes are estimated. The difficulty in directly measuring breaking wave parameters forces the use of a model. The one developed here simulates the evolution of bubble clouds generated when wind waves break in deep water ( Thorpe 1986 ; Osborn et al. 1992 ). Its free

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George R. Halliwell Jr.

1. Introduction The relative importance of different forcing mechanisms responsible for climatic sea surface temperature anomaly ( T sa ) fluctuations in the North Atlantic depends on frequency (e.g., Bjerknes 1964 ; Zorita et al. 1992 ; Delworth et al. 1993 ; Deser and Blackmon 1993 ; Kushnir 1994 ). At decadal and shorter interannual periods, T sa is driven primarily by the atmosphere through anomalous local air–sea fluxes. At periods of several decades, however, T sa is driven

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Jack A. C. Kaiser

1036 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VO~-VM~9The Effects of Clouds on the Diurnal Variation of Underwater Irradiances on Horizontal Surfaces JACK A. C. KAISEROcean Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 2037522 May 1978 and 20 March 1979ABSTRACT Measurements of underwater downwelling D, underwater upwelling U, both at 5 m, and surface downwelling irradiance I were taken over

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Fan Jia and Lixin Wu

been suggested that in response to increased GHGs, the Walker circulation weakens because of global hydrologic cycle changes ( Vecchi et al. 2006 ; Zhang and Song 2006 ), inducing a reduction of the zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific. Meanwhile, cloud feedbacks including cloud cover and albedo are considered to be important in the El Niño–like response ( Meehl and Washington 1996 ; Meehl et al. 2000 ). The ocean thermostat theory ( Clement et al. 1996 ; Cane et al. 1997 ) based on the

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Richard G. Williams, Chris Wilson, and Chris W. Hughes

; Hoskins and Hodges 2002 ). Given that the baroclinic instability process is acting to reduce the baroclinicity, the storm tracks might be expected to migrate to different locations after eddies are formed and the baroclinicity is locally reduced. Instead, the storm tracks are persistent features, suggesting that either there are external forcing processes acting to localize the features or there are feedback mechanisms making the storm tracks self-sustaining ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 ). The external

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Donald P. Wylie and Barry B. Hinton

186JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYVOLUME 12The Wind Stress Patterns over the Indian Ocean During the Summer Monsoon of 1979DONALD P. WYLIE AND BARRY B. HINTONSpace Science and Ragineering Center. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53706(Manuscript received 27 March 1981, in final form 9 November 1981)ABSTRACTA detailed analysis of the wind stress patterns over the Indian Ocean was made from 1 May to 31 July1979. A combination of cloud motion and ship data obtained once per day was used to

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Ming Li and Chris Garrett

64 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Is Langmuir Circulation Driven by Surface Waves or Surface Cooling? MING LI AND CHRIS GARRETTCentre for Earth and Ocean Research, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia. Canada(Manuscript received 7 December 1993, in final form 6 May 1994) The ratio of the buoyancy force driving thermal convection to the surface wave vortex-force

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Ming Li, Svein Vagle, and David M. Farmer

1. Introduction The ocean mixed layer (OML) is the link between the atmosphere and deep ocean and directly affects the air–sea exchange of heat, momentum, and gases. Understanding how the mixed layer responds and reacts to atmospheric forcing is thus critical for understanding the ocean–atmosphere coupling. Especially important is the need to understand how the upper ocean responds to meteorological forcing under storm conditions. Tropical cyclones are spectacular examples of extreme

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Kalyan Shrestha, William Anderson, and Joseph Kuehl

1. Introduction The upper region of the ocean is subjected to dramatic ambient forcing, which enhances and controls the turbulent exchanges of momentum, heat, and other quantities across the air–sea interface ( Leibovich 1983 ; Thorpe 2004 ; Sullivan and Williams 2010 ). Among these forces are breaking and nonbreaking waves, where the latter interacts with wind stress to produce local recirculating motions called Langmuir circulations (LC), which was first studied by Langmuir (1938) . LC can

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