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Joseph Chi Kan Huang and Peter W. Sloss

.lated, there are still many areas as large as 5- longitude x 5- latitude without a single reliable measurement. In the Great Lakes, the situation is not muchbetter and, consequently, numerical studies havebeen restricted to certain observable phenomena,such as seiches and storm surges. However, afterthe April 1972-March 1973 International Field Yearfor the Great Lakes (IFYGL), Lake Ontario becamethe best surveyed large body of water suitable forsimulation studies because of the

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James A. Carton and Bohua Huang

undergoes anomalous warming events of1 --2-C every few years. The warm anomalies reach their maximum strength in Northern Hemisphere summer,when equatorial upwelling normally brings cold thermocline water to the surface. By compositing surface observations from a 28-year record, we are able to identify consistent features in anomalies of SST and winds.The composites show that the SST anomalies in northern summer are confined to the eastern equatorial region,with reduced zonal winds to the west and

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Hans C. Graber, Robert C. Beardsley, and William D. Grant

-2 days (Watts1969). The prevailing surface winds associated withthese cold air surges are northwesterly in excess of 10m s-~ and occasionally reach speeds as high as 20 ms-l. Hsueh and Romea (1983b) used the geostrophicmethod described by Bakun ( 1973 ) to estimate wintersurface winds over the East China Sea from surfacepressure maps and compared them to observed windsfrom the region: they found that an average (from allthe stations) reduction of the geostrophically calculatedmagnitude of 59% and 55

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Toshinori Ogasawara and Takashi Yasuda

1. Introduction Wind-driven currents play important roles in the transport of suspended solids and sediment, planktons, and dissolved oxygen. In particular, the currents driven by strong winds due to unusual meteorological disturbances, such as typhoons or cold fronts, not only can cause coastal disasters, but also can have a great influence on coastal environments. This is because the currents in the coastal sea and inner bays can become not only the primary cause for storm surge and large

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G. T. Csanady

between air and watercan modify the stress quite spectacularly. Roll (1965)surveys some of the available evidence, remarkingthat even on the basis of a small number of.studies, theinfluence of the gravitational stability of the air overcold water on wind stress is "striking." When warm airflows over cold water, the wind velocity very near thesurface, and with this the stress exerted, reducesdrastically as compared to neutral conditions. Conversely, much increased drag is found, with cold airflowing

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Kenneth H. Brink, David W. Stuart, and John C. Van Leer

categories: meteorological and physical oceanographic. A description ofthe overall interdisciplinary dataset is given by Joneset al. (1983).a. Meteorological Surface (10 m) winds, air pressure and air andwater temperatures were obtained on an hourly basisthroughout the observation period from the NOAAbuoy (NDBO 46011) located at 34-53%1, 120-52~q,about 20 km offshore of Point Sal and about 35 kmnorth of Point Arguello (Fig. 1). This over-the-waterrecord was taken to be the standard OPUS wind

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A. Artegiani, E. Paschini, A. Russo, D. Bregant, F. Raicich, and N. Pinardi

in May to about 7°C in November. Relative humidity ( Fig. 2b ) is generally higher in the northern section and in the colder seasons, mainly as a consequence of lower air temperature. The winter field is relatively homogeneous, whereas a significant longitudinal gradient exists in the northern section in spring and summer. A relative humidity minimum is present in all seasons in the southern section. The main characteristic of NMC wind data ( Fig. 2c ) is a prevailing westerly component in all

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Kevin J. Horsburgh and A. Edward Hill

a dome of cold, dense water beneath a strong thermocline. This localized stratification is possible because unlike most of the Irish Sea, where tidal currents are of the order 1 m s −1 , currents to the west of the Isle of Man are less than 0.3 m s −1 . Furthermore, this region coincides with the deep water channel (see Fig. 1 ). The transition from stratified to vertically well-mixed water takes place over a distance of approximately 10 km at tidal mixing fronts, which are located at critical

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Andreas Münchow and Eddy C. Carmack

different from zero as the errors generally exceed the net flux estimates. Flux estimates are so rare, however, that even order of magnitude estimates may prove useful to design future experiments. Extrapolating our velocity measurements to the surface we arrive at a net heat flux of 120 ± 490 W m −2 from the ocean to the atmosphere. This estimate is similar to estimates of the surface heat flux Q of a warm ocean below a cold atmosphere from bulk formulas such as Q = ρ air C p C H U wind (T ocean

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Andreas Münchow

) describes diurnal and semidiurnal tidal currents. Barth and Brink (1987) study oceanic dynamics with data from a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. Emphasizing data from one particular upwelling event, they conceptualize the oceanic flow near Point Conception as an upwelling center with a cold plume that extends more than 80 km offshore. More recently Strub et al. (1991) interpret such plumes near capes off California as meanders of the California Current system. Furthermore, the cold

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