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Gareth J. Marshall

of the relationship between the circulation patterns and their proposed drivers (or statistical predictors) within the climate system may also be nonstationary, perhaps in response to changes in the background state (e.g., Kolstad and Screen 2019 ). Popova (2018) described decadal-scale variability in the climatic impact of the patterns in the north of Eurasia linked to switches in the rate of global warming. Moreover, modeling studies suggest that as the Arctic warms further the links between

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B. Yu, A. Shabbar, and F. W. Zwiers

to warm and cold ENSO events rather than a phase shift between El Niño and La Niña height patterns over the North Pacific. Recent studies further suggest that the variability of the Aleutian low pressure center and the associated SSTs in the North Pacific regulate the ENSO response over North America ( Yang et al. 2002 ; Lau et al. 2004 ). The variability of the Aleutian low pressure center, which exhibits remarkable decadal variability (e.g., Deser et al. 2004 ), is represented by the North

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Houk Paek and Huei-Ping Huang

models can produce a reliable long-term climatology without invoking a flux correction for air–sea interaction. The transition to CMIP5 saw the emergence of “earth system” models with dynamic treatments for the global biogeochemical cycle, among other processes. The scope of the multimodel intercomparison has also continued to expand, with a notable new focus being the validation and intercomparison of decadal-to-interdecadal variability. It is now recognized that a correct representation of decadal

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Guobin Fu, Stephen P. Charles, Jingjie Yu, and Changming Liu

requires further investigation. The primary objectives of this research are to 1) analyze the observed climatic variability in the NCP region during the last four decades, using Kendall’s test to detect any significant trends in precipitation or temperature; and 2) extract the future climate scenarios for the region from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) GCMs and discuss the potential impacts of projected climate changes on regional water resource

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Pacific basin, low-frequency variability in sea surface temperature (SST) has been observed to be characterized by a decadal time scale. Commonly referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), the spatial pattern of this mode has a characteristic “horseshoe” shape, with opposite signs between the extremum in the western and central Pacific and that localized to the eastern rim of the basin. Its time evolution displays characteristic

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Shaohua Chen, Haikun Zhao, Philp J. Klotzbach, Graciela B. Raga, Jian Cao, and Chao Wang

three distinct regimes in the interannual relationship between TBV and TCF. In contrast, we do not find these decadal regimes for Niño-3.4 and TCF ( Fig. 2b ). Therefore, although TBV and ENSO share similar characteristics, TBV appears to more significantly impact total TCF over the three basins than ENSO does. In this section, we examine the distinct modulation of TCF by TBV and ENSO in these three ocean basins. a. Variability of TBV on different time scales A power spectrum analysis highlights

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Ling Ling Liu and Rui Xin Huang

. Water mass formation/erosion and the subsequent modification have been widely studied over the past decades. In particular, the subject of mode water, including its generation, transport, transformation and variability, has been widely studied by many investigators. Hanawa and Talley (2001) provided a thorough review for this subject and a comprehensive list of the most important and relevant references. Since water mass formation and erosion are complicated phenomena, there are different

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Gerald A. Meehl, Aixue Hu, Julie M. Arblaster, John Fasullo, and Kevin E. Trenberth

reduced Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation and one having to do with an internally generated mode of decadal variability in the Pacific basin called the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO) in its negative phase when tropical Pacific SSTs are below normal ( Power et al. 1999 ; Meehl and Hu 2006 ; Meehl et al. 2010 ; Dai 2013 ; Meehl and Arblaster 2011 , 2012 ). While Katsman and van Oldenborgh (2011) suggested a role for variability in the planetary imbalance in the context of present

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Young-Oh Kwon and Clara Deser

1. Introduction Significant low-frequency variability of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies at decadal and longer time scales has been observed in the North Pacific (e.g., Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Nakamura et al. 1997 ) and has been termed the “Pacific decadal oscillation” (PDO) ( Mantua et al. 1997 ). SST anomalies associated with the PDO exhibit a basinwide horseshoelike spatial pattern with one sign in the central and western North Pacific surrounded by the opposite sign to the

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Youichi Tanimoto, Takashi Kagimoto, and Hideharu Sasaki

1. Introduction For the North Pacific decadal variability, the importance of the remote influence from the tropics ( Nitta and Yamada 1989 ; Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Newman et al. 2003 ; Deser et al. 2004 , among others) and that of the midlatitude atmospheric stochastic forcing ( Hasselman 1976 ; Frankignoul 1985 ) has been stressed. A recent analytical investigation by Qiu et al. (2007) , however, emphasized the potential importance of ocean-to-atmosphere feedback in the Kuroshio

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