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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

formation. For example, prior to Operation Castor, the initial French assault to capture Dien Bien Phu in November 1953, French commanders and weather personnel flew a reconnaissance mission to determine if conditions were favorable for the airborne operation. Fog blanketed the drop zone on the morning of the first drops, but the clouds soon cleared, thereby enabling the largest troop transport operation of the entire conflict ( Fall 1966 ). In general, such major operations would likely be planned to

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Michelle Rutty and Jean Andrey

deterred, rain and freezing rain were the greatest deterrents for both skiers/snowboarders (89% and 93%) and snowmobilers (96% and 81%). The majority of skiers/snowboarders (56%) would also be deterred by high wind chill and a majority of snowmobilers (61%) would be deterred by warm temperatures. Few respondents in both sample groups would be deterred by sun/cloud conditions (<2%) or by other forecast variables including lack of snow, high winds, and fog (<4%). Fig . 9. Weather forecast variables that

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Rachel Hauser

restrain global warming concurrently with global mitigation and adaptation efforts ( Blackstock et al. 2009 ; Caldeira and Keith 2010 ; Keith et al. 2010 ; Task Force on Climate Remediation Research 2011 ). Similar to geoengineering, cloud seeding techniques were explored beginning in the 1940s as a means for humans to moderate extreme weather, with the intent being, as appropriate to the situation, to augment or suppress rain or snow, hail, fog, lightning, or severe storms so as to reduce loss of

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Yujie Wang, Lianchun Song, Chris Hewitt, Nicola Golding, and Zili Huang

, after taking various factors into consideration. As a result, this new airport is constantly subjected to heavy fog ( Zhang 2019 ). Therefore, climate service capability and delivery in China suffer from several shortcomings and challenges, of which three key shortcomings are identified here in more detail. First, climate service capability cannot meet the current needs of decision-makers, and this gap is growing. Part of this is because climate services are not always able to use the latest

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Michael Robert Nkuba, Raban Chanda, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, Margaret Najjingo Mangheni, David Lesolle, and Edward Kato

forecast indicators in the Rwenzori region ( N = 907) (source: survey data from 2015). e. Observance of events on Mount Rwenzori Observance of the changes in fog and cloud cover on Mount Rwenzori was an important factor in climate forecasts ( Table 6 ). An IK forecaster showed that the events on Mount Rwenzori were important in climate forecasting for the Rwenzori region. It was worth noting that the seasonal calendar of events was important in long-range climate predictions for climate risks such as

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Scott Bremer, Anne Blanchard, Nabir Mamnun, Mathew Stiller-Reeve, Md. Mahfujul Haque, and Endre Tvinnereim

structure to recounting experience. The narratives provided diverse descriptions of weather phenomena over the seasons, including heavy rainfall, extreme heat, and thunderstorms in summer; strong winds and continuous rain during the monsoon; cold spells and lingering fog in winter, and the light breezes and sunny days of spring. By the frequency at which they were mentioned and the weight people attached to stories, certain phenomena emerged as more important to our interviewees, having a significant

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Andrea L. Taylor, Astrid Kause, Barbara Summers, and Melanie Harrowsmith

, thunderstorms, lightning, and fog. At the time of Storm Doris, a traffic light system, used alongside predefined action statements, denoted four levels of warning: green (since replaced by gray) = no warning, yellow = be aware, amber = be prepared, and red = take action. While the action statements have since been discontinued and replaced by more specific guidance about how to respond to the warning, color-coded warning levels remain. Warning levels integrate information about expected likelihood and local

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Alexander Hall and Georgina Endfield

and weather was described by a resident of the nearby village of Nenthead, who builds dry stone walls on Alston Moor, who reflected that When you see the weather rolling in, you can have a crisp, sunny summer day and then come about 3 or 4 o’clock there’s a weather front moving in, and you watch it coming over from the west, from Hartside, and ye see this as it just gets darker and darker, it gets colder, the wind picks up, the sun disappears and before you know it yer in fog ( Alston Moor Film

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

example, fuzziness—blurring the boundaries of objects—and transparency were considered superior to other techniques such as color saturation or sketchiness (making objects look like they were hand drawn instead of computer generated). The authors hypothesized that “ fog and blur are metaphors for lack of clarity or focus (as in a camera) and thus directly signify uncertainty” ( Kinkeldey et al. 2014 , p. 383). They explain that these intrinsic methods of representing uncertainty—altering properties

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01356.x . Rasmussen, K. , Fog B. , and Madsen J. E. , 2001 : Desertification in reverse? Observations from northern Burkina Faso . Global Environ. Change , 11 , 271 – 282 , doi: 10.1016/S0959-3780(01)00005-X . Raynaut, C. , Grégoire E. , Janin P. , Koechlin J. , and Delville P. L. , 1997 : Societies and Nature in the Sahel . Routledge, 351 pp . Reij, C. P. , and Smaling E. M. A. , 2008 : Analyzing successes in agriculture and land management in

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