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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

cyclone constitutes an external forcing with persistent structure to the midlatitude wave. This idea is in marked contrast to traditional initial-value studies of baroclinic development, in which the initial perturbations are embedded in the midlatitude flow and are thus not an external forcing (e.g., Simmons and Hoskins 1979 ; Hakim 2000 ). 2) Evolution of the upstream trough ET may also influence the upstream trough, which may experience modifications of its shape, meridional extension, and

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Andrew Staniforth and Jean Côté

time levels (section 2c).b. Forced advection in multidimensions Consider the forced-advection problem dF -~- + G(x, t) = R(x, t), (6)where dF OF - + V(x, t). VF, (7) dt at dx dt V(x, t), (8)Here, x is the position vector (in 1-, 2- or 3D), V isthe gradient operator, and G and R are forcing terms

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

) that, without the regular introduction of random forcings, the deterministic filter can develop highly non-Gaussian distributions. In deterministic filters, the regular addition of model error fields, via Eq. (22) [ section 4a(1) ], can serve as a forcing toward Gaussian distributions ( Lawson and Hansen 2004 , their section 5). Whereas, as mentioned, the EAKF and EnSRF algorithms are very similar, actual implementations for complex assimilation systems can be quite different. A deterministic

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Craig S. Schwartz and Ryan A. Sobash

. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 673 – 689 , doi: 10.1002/qj.769 . 10.1002/qj.769 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD009944 . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Janjić , Z. I. , 1994 : The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection

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Scott R. Fulton, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Wayne H. Schubert

solvers. Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 311-326.Hoskins, B. J., 1975: The geostrophic momentum approximation and the semi-geostrophic equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 233 242.---, and I. Draghici, 1977: The forcing of ageostrophic motion according to the semi-geostrophic equations and in an isentropic coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1859-1867.Jameson, A., 1983: Solution' of the Euler equations for two dimen sional transonic flow by multigrid method. Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 327-355.Jespersen, D

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

deep, moist convection east of the center ( Quinting et al. 2014 ). Deep, moist convection developed in response to meso- to synoptic-scale forcing for ascent where the leading edge of the dry-air intrusion from the west intersected an intensifying warm front ( Fig. 10 ). A similar evolution was also observed in WNP Typhoon Phanfone (2014) by polarimetric radar observations collected on board the Research Vessel (R/V) Mirai ( Katsumata et al. 2016 ). Together, these studies provide observational

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Graeme L. Stephens

. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 806-809.~, 1978a and b: Radiative properties of extended water clouds. Parts I and IL J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 21ll-2132.--., 1980: Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared region. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 435-446.~, G. W. Paltridge and C. M. R. Platt, 1978: Radiative profiles of extended water clouds. IIl: Observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2133-2141.--., and P. J. Webster, 1979: Sensitivity of radiative forcing to variable cloud and moisture. J, Atmos. Sci., 36

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