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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

between the occurrence of significant tornadoes and solar heating [Fig. 7 in Dessens and Snow (1989) ], with tornadoes being reported mainly around noon during November–March and between mid and late afternoon during April–October. The tornado database developed by Dessens and Snow (1989) contained 20 significant nighttime tornadoes, which shows that the solar forcing was not directly associated with some of the French tornadoes. The nighttime tornadoes in France may be associated with

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Andrew Staniforth and Jean Côté

time levels (section 2c).b. Forced advection in multidimensions Consider the forced-advection problem dF -~- + G(x, t) = R(x, t), (6)where dF OF - + V(x, t). VF, (7) dt at dx dt V(x, t), (8)Here, x is the position vector (in 1-, 2- or 3D), V isthe gradient operator, and G and R are forcing terms

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

) that, without the regular introduction of random forcings, the deterministic filter can develop highly non-Gaussian distributions. In deterministic filters, the regular addition of model error fields, via Eq. (22) [ section 4a(1) ], can serve as a forcing toward Gaussian distributions ( Lawson and Hansen 2004 , their section 5). Whereas, as mentioned, the EAKF and EnSRF algorithms are very similar, actual implementations for complex assimilation systems can be quite different. A deterministic

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Scott R. Fulton, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Wayne H. Schubert

solvers. Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 311-326.Hoskins, B. J., 1975: The geostrophic momentum approximation and the semi-geostrophic equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 233 242.---, and I. Draghici, 1977: The forcing of ageostrophic motion according to the semi-geostrophic equations and in an isentropic coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1859-1867.Jameson, A., 1983: Solution' of the Euler equations for two dimen sional transonic flow by multigrid method. Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 327-355.Jespersen, D

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Craig S. Schwartz and Ryan A. Sobash

. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 673 – 689 , doi: 10.1002/qj.769 . 10.1002/qj.769 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD009944 . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Janjić , Z. I. , 1994 : The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

deep, moist convection east of the center ( Quinting et al. 2014 ). Deep, moist convection developed in response to meso- to synoptic-scale forcing for ascent where the leading edge of the dry-air intrusion from the west intersected an intensifying warm front ( Fig. 10 ). A similar evolution was also observed in WNP Typhoon Phanfone (2014) by polarimetric radar observations collected on board the Research Vessel (R/V) Mirai ( Katsumata et al. 2016 ). Together, these studies provide observational

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Graeme L. Stephens

. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 806-809.~, 1978a and b: Radiative properties of extended water clouds. Parts I and IL J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 21ll-2132.--., 1980: Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared region. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 435-446.~, G. W. Paltridge and C. M. R. Platt, 1978: Radiative profiles of extended water clouds. IIl: Observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2133-2141.--., and P. J. Webster, 1979: Sensitivity of radiative forcing to variable cloud and moisture. J, Atmos. Sci., 36

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